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Chapter 3 : Molecular Methods for Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

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Abstract:

Molecular characterization of the genetic mechanism(s) underlying a given phenotypic result, obtained by traditional antimicrobial sensitivity testing, is now an integral part of many clinical investigations in relation to bacterial infections, whether in humans or animals. In some cases, when phenotypic results are too time-consuming, nonconclusive, or unavailable, molecular analysis can be used to investigate the presence of a given gene or point mutation and thereby give direct support to ensure that an optimal treatment or control strategy is undertaken in a timely manner. In addition, molecular characterization is frequently used as an indirect method to aid in epidemiological investigations following an outbreak, when phenotypic data is not sufficiently detailed to control possible outbreaks involving resistant bacteria. Finally, molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants is also used for local, national, or even global surveillance of AMR. Currently, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Center for Disease Control (ECDC) are involved in monitoring and coordinating surveillance of AMR in important zoonotic bacteria from food animals and humans, and systems such as the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) have helped generate data regarding the prevalence of AMR in many European countries. However, most of the data are based on phenotypic characterization of isolates, although genotypic detection of AMR genes is also being increasingly performed by member states.

Citation: Anjum M, Zankari E, Hasman H. 2018. Molecular Methods for Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance, p 33-50. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0011-2017
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Tables

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Table 1

Overview of different open-access bioinformatic tools for identification of antimicrobial resistance

Citation: Anjum M, Zankari E, Hasman H. 2018. Molecular Methods for Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance, p 33-50. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0011-2017

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