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Chapter 5 : Resistance to Metals Used in Agricultural Production

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Abstract:

Metal compounds are widely used in livestock production because they are necessary supplements and play a very important role as essential trace elements that are part of the nutritional requirements of most animal species. However, copper and zinc compounds are also added to feed in larger concentrations for achieving additional beneficial effects. Therefore, we will focus this chapter on copper and zinc; their use and indications; the concerns related to the selection of resistance, toxicity, and environmental pollution and policies; and the alternatives and new developments regarding their use. Compounds derived from the nonessential metal arsenic, such as roxarsone, which have been used in livestock for feed supplementation in some countries around the world, will not be discussed in great detail in this chapter.

Citation: Rensing C, Moodley A, Cavaco L, McDevitt S. 2018. Resistance to Metals Used in Agricultural Production, p 83-107. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0025-2017
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Figure 1

Copper fitness (or pathogenicity) island in . Genes and protein products of the enterobacterial copper fitness island composed of the - and -determinants. The genes, including their transcriptional/translational direction, are indicated below the illustration of the proposed or experimentally determined function of the proteins encoded by the system. Refer to text for details. (Reprinted with permission [ ].)

Citation: Rensing C, Moodley A, Cavaco L, McDevitt S. 2018. Resistance to Metals Used in Agricultural Production, p 83-107. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0025-2017
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Copper fitness island in . Genes and proposed protein products of the copper island in HF50105 (GenBank accession number AITS01000024). The genes, including their transcriptional/translational direction, are indicated below the illustration of the proposed function of the proteins. (Refer to text for details.) Adjacent to and separating the genes involved in copper resistance are genes encoding prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (A), integral membrane protein (B), predicted metal-binding protein/chaperone (C), hypothetical protein (H), transposase (T), and disrupted P-type ATPase (F) that have been identified. (Reprinted with permission [ ].)

Citation: Rensing C, Moodley A, Cavaco L, McDevitt S. 2018. Resistance to Metals Used in Agricultural Production, p 83-107. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0025-2017
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