Chapter 8 : Antimicrobial Resistance in spp.

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More than 60 species have been recognized so far. Some of these, such as , , , , and , produce hemolytic factors and, when cultivated on solid media containing blood, can be classified as beta-hemolytic. However, nonhemolytic variants can also be observed ( ). Isolates belonging to other species, such as subsp. , , , , , , , and , produce hydrogen peroxide that partially lyses the erythrocytes, with the subsequent oxidation of the heme group resulting in a greenish pigment in the medium that is often interpreted as alpha-hemolysis. This oxidation process is influenced by several cultivation conditions and is variably evident. For this reason, it is preferable to consider those latter-mentioned species as nonhemolytic. The truly nonhemolytic species, mainly encompassing (formerly ), were also named gamma-hemolytic. A classification of species proposed by Rebecca Lancefield in the 1930s was based on the antigenic reaction of the cell wall-associated carbohydrates and remains classically used ( ). On the basis of this approach, streptococci are distributed into groups ranging from A to W, depending on the antibodies recognizing the specific carbohydrates of a definite streptococcal species. Nevertheless, the whole picture is sometimes complicated by the fact that several antibodies can react with isolates belonging to the same species. For instance, depending on the isolates, subsp. may be classified as belonging to the C or G group, while it may also be classified, even though less commonly, as group A or L ( ); isolates from may belong to either the C or G group; isolates from are sporadically considered as group D; isolates from are indifferently classified as group A, C, G, F, or N; isolates from subsp. belong to either group F or N; sporadic isolates belonging to subsp. can be considered as group C; isolates from the species can be considered as group N; and finally, isolates belonging to are classified in either group P, U, or V.

Citation: Haenni M, Lupo A, Madec J. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp., p 159-184. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0008-2017
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Ten-year evolution of resistance in France in (A) and (B) .

Citation: Haenni M, Lupo A, Madec J. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp., p 159-184. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0008-2017
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