Chapter 9 : Antimicrobial Resistance in spp. of animal origin

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Antimicrobial Resistance in spp. of animal origin, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819804/9781555819798_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819804/9781555819798_Chap09-2.gif


species are natural inhabitants of the intestinal tract in humans and animals, and due to their ubiquity in human and animal feces and their persistence in the environment, enterococci are considered indicators of fecal contamination in water ( ). Moreover, enterococci serve as important key indicator bacteria for several human and veterinary resistance surveillance systems.

Citation: Torres C, Alonso C, Ruiz-Ripa L, León-Sampedro R, del Campo R, Coque T. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp. of animal origin, p 185-227. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0032-2018
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Plasmid gene content of 67 and 47 genomes of animal origin from the NCBI whole-genome database. Plasmid data were obtained by the PlasmidFinder bioinformatics tool. The genomes from the database were classified by source, extracting the isolate information from the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC) database ( ). Reps, replicases.

Citation: Torres C, Alonso C, Ruiz-Ripa L, León-Sampedro R, del Campo R, Coque T. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp. of animal origin, p 185-227. In Schwarz S, Cavaco L, Shen J (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0032-2018
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Boehm AB,, Sassoubre LM, . 2014. Enterococci as indicators of environmental fecal contamination. In Gilmore MS,, Clewell DB,, Ike Y,, Shankar N (ed), Enterococci: from Commensals to Leading Causes of Drug Resistant Infection. Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA.[PubMed]
2. Tyson GH,, Nyirabahizi E,, Crarey E,, Kabera C,, Lam C,, Rice-Trujillo C,, McDermott PF,, Tate H . 2017. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from retail meats in the United States, 2002–2014. Appl Environ Microbiol 84 : e01902 e01917.[PubMed]
3. Arias CA,, Murray BE . 2012. The rise of the Enterococcus: beyond vancomycin resistance. Nat Rev Microbiol 10 : 266 278.[CrossRef][PubMed]
4. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) . 2011. Annual epidemiological report on communicable diseases in Europe. Euro Surveill 16 : 20012.
5. Iaria C,, Stassi G,, Costa GB,, Di Leo R,, Toscano A,, Cascio A . 2005. Enterococcal meningitis caused by Enterococcus casseliflavus. First case report. BMC Infect Dis 5 : 3.[CrossRef][PubMed]
6. Canalejo E,, Ballesteros R,, Cabezudo J,, García-Arata MI,, Moreno J . 2008. Bacteraemic spondylodiscitis caused by Enterococcus hirae. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 27 : 613 615.[CrossRef][PubMed]
7. Mastroianni A . 2009. Enterococcus raffinosus endocarditis. First case and literature review. Infez Med 17 : 14 20.[PubMed]
8. Antonello VS,, Zenkner FM,, França J,, Santos BR . 2010. Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis in an immunocompetent host: a case report. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo 52 : 111 112.[CrossRef][PubMed]
9. Escribano JA,, Solivera J,, Vidal E,, Rivin E,, Lozano J . 2013. Otogenic cerebellar abscess by Enterococcus avium, a very rare infectious agent. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 74( Suppl 1) : e155 e158.[CrossRef][PubMed]
10. Kenzaka T,, Takamura N,, Kumabe A,, Takeda K . 2013. A case of subacute infective endocarditis and blood access infection caused by Enterococcus durans. BMC Infect Dis 13 : 594.[CrossRef][PubMed]
11. Lebreton F,, Willems RJL,, Gilmore MS, . 2014. Enterococcus diversity, origins in nature, and gut colonization. In Gilmore MS,, Clewell DB,, Ike Y,, Shankar N (ed), Enterococci: from Commensals to Leading Causes of Drug Resistant Infection. Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA.
12. Aarestrup FM,, Butaye P,, Witte W, . 2002. Nonhuman reservoirs of enterococci, p 1281 1289. In Gilmore MS,, Clewell DB,, Courvalin P,, Dunny GM,, Murray BE,, Rice LB (ed), The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
13. Aarestrup FM (ed) . 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
14. Stalker MJ,, Brash ML,, Weisz A,, Ouckama RM,, Slavic D . 2010. Arthritis and osteomyelitis associated with Enterococcus cecorum infection in broiler and broiler breeder chickens in Ontario, Canada. J Vet Diagn Invest 22 : 643 645.[CrossRef]
15. Dolka B,, Chrobak-Chmiel D,, Makrai L,, Szeleszczuk P . 2016. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Enterococcus cecorum strains associated with infections in poultry. BMC Vet Res 12 : 129.[CrossRef][PubMed]
16. Kak V,, Chow JM, . 2002. Acquired antibiotic resistances in enterococci, p 355 383. In Gilmore MS,, Clewell B,, Courvalin P,, Dunny GM,, Murray BM,, Rice LB (ed), The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
17. Hollenbeck BL,, Rice LB . 2012. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus. Virulence 3 : 421 433.[CrossRef][PubMed]
18. Miller WR,, Munita JM,, Arias CA . 2014. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in enterococci. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 12 : 1221 1236.[CrossRef][PubMed]
19. Courvalin P . 2006. Vancomycin resistance in Gram-positive cocci. Clin Infect Dis 42( Suppl 1) : S25 S34.[CrossRef][PubMed]
20. Nilsson O . 2012. Vancomycin resistant enterococci in farm animals: occurrence and importance. Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2 : 16959.[CrossRef][PubMed]
21. Cattoir V,, Leclercq R . 2013. Twenty-five years of shared life with vancomycin-resistant enterococci: is it time to divorce? J Antimicrob Chemother 68 : 731 742.[CrossRef][PubMed]
22. Ahmed MO,, Baptiste KE . 2017. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: a review of antimicrobial resistant mechanisms and perspectives of human and animal health. Microb Drug Resist. Epub ahead of print.[CrossRef]
23. Chow JW . 2000. Aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci. Clin Infect Dis 31 : 586 589.[CrossRef][PubMed]
24. Hammerum AM,, Lester CH,, Heuer OE . 2010. Antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and meat: a human health hazard? Foodborne Pathog Dis 7 : 1137 1146.[CrossRef][PubMed]
25. Bortolaia V,, Espinosa-Gongora C,, Guardabassi L . 2016. Human health risks associated with antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus on poultry meat. Clin Microbiol Infect 22 : 130 140.[CrossRef][PubMed]
26. Hammerum AM . 2012. Enterococci of animal origin and their significance for public health. Clin Microbiol Infect 18 : 619 625.[CrossRef][PubMed]
27. Bortolaia V,, Guardabassi L, . 2015. Zoonotic transmission of antimicrobial resistant enterococci: a threat to public health or an overemphasized risk? p 407 431. In Sing A (ed), Zoonoses: Infections Affecting Humans and Animals. Focus on Public Health Aspects. Springer, New York, NY.[CrossRef]
28. Stiles ME,, Holzapfel WH . 1997. Lactic acid bacteria of foods and their current taxonomy. Int J Food Microbiol 36 : 1 29.[CrossRef]
29. Lund B,, Adamsson I,, Edlund C . 2002. Gastrointestinal transit survival of an Enterococcus faecium probiotic strain administered with or without vancomycin. Int J Food Microbiol 77 : 109 115.[CrossRef]
30. Foulquié Moreno MR,, Sarantinopoulos P,, Tsakalidou E,, De Vuyst L . 2006. The role and application of enterococci in food and health. Int J Food Microbiol 106 : 1 24.[CrossRef][PubMed]
31. Zhong Z,, Zhang W,, Song Y,, Liu W,, Xu H,, Xi X,, Menghe B,, Zhang H,, Sun Z . 2017. Comparative genomic analysis of the genus Enterococcus. Microbiol Res 196 : 95 105.[CrossRef][PubMed]
32. Schleifer KH,, Kilpper-Balz R . 1984. Transfer of Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium to the genus Enterococcus nom. rev. as Enterococcus faecalis comb. nov. and Enterococcus faecium comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 34 : 31 34.[CrossRef]
33. Parte AC . 2014. LPSN: list of prokaryotic names with standing in nomenclature. Nucleic Acids Res 42( D1) : D613 D616.[CrossRef][PubMed]
34. De Graef EM,, Devriese LA,, Vancanneyt M,, Baele M,, Collins MD,, Lefebvre K,, Swings J,, Haesebrouck F . 2003. Description of Enterococcus canis sp. nov. from dogs and reclassification of Enterococcus porcinus Teixeira et al. 2001 as a junior synonym of Enterococcus villorum Vancanneyt et al. 2001. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53 : 1069 1074.[CrossRef][PubMed]
35. Law-Brown J,, Meyers PR . 2003. Enterococcus phoeniculicola sp. nov., a novel member of the enterococci isolated from the uropygial gland of the red-billed woodhoopoe, Phoeniculus purpureus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53 : 683 685.[CrossRef]
36. Fortina MG,, Ricci G,, Mora D,, Manachini PL . 2004. Molecular analysis of artisanal Italian cheeses reveals Enterococcus italicus sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54 : 1717 1721.[CrossRef][PubMed]
37. Švec P,, Vancanneyt M,, Koort J,, Naser SM,, Hoste B,, Vihavainen E,, Vandamme P,, Swings J,, Björkroth J . 2005. Enterococcus devriesei sp. nov., associated with animal sources. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55 : 2479 2484.[CrossRef][PubMed]
38. Tanasupawat S,, Sukontasing S,, Lee JS . 2008. Enterococcus thailandicus sp. nov., isolated from fermented sausage (‘mum’) in Thailand. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58 : 1630 1634.[CrossRef][PubMed]
39. Švec P,, Vandamme P,, Bryndová H,, Holochová P,, Kosina M,, Maslanová I,, Sedlácek I . 2012. Enterococcus plantarum sp. nov., isolated from plants. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62 : 1499 1505.[CrossRef][PubMed]
40. Niemi RM,, Ollinkangas T,, Paulin L,, Švec P,, Vandamme P,, Karkman A,, Kosina M,, Lindström K . 2012. Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov., from water of pristine brooks. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62 : 2169 2173.[CrossRef][PubMed]
41. Sistek V,, Maheux AF,, Boissinot M,, Bernard KA,, Cantin P,, Cleenwerck I,, De Vos P,, Bergeron MG . 2012. Enterococcus ureasiticus sp. nov. and Enterococcus quebecensis sp. nov., isolated from water. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62 : 1314 1320.[CrossRef][PubMed]
42. Sedláček I,, Holochová P,, Mašlaňová I,, Kosina M,, Spröer C,, Bryndová H,, Vandamme P,, Rudolf I,, Hubálek Z,, Švec P . 2013. Enterococcus ureilyticus sp. nov. and Enterococcus rotai sp. nov., two urease-producing enterococci from the environment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63 : 502 510.[CrossRef][PubMed]
43. Mundt JO . 1963. Occurrence of enterococci in animals in a wild environment. Appl Microbiol 11 : 136 140.[PubMed]
44. Kühn I,, Iversen A,, Burman LG,, Olsson-Liljequist B,, Franklin A,, Finn M,, Aarestrup F,, Seyfarth AM,, Blanch AR,, Vilanova X,, Taylor H,, Caplin J,, Moreno MA,, Dominguez L,, Herrero IA,, Möllby R . 2003. Comparison of enterococcal populations in animals, humans, and the environment: a European study. Int J Food Microbiol 88 : 133 145.[CrossRef]
45. Devriese LA,, Ceyssens K,, Haesebrouck F . 1991a. Characteristics of Enterococcus cecorum strains from the intestines of different animal species. Lett Appl Microbiol 12 : 137 139.[CrossRef]
46. Devriese LA,, Laurier L,, De Herdt P,, Haesebrouck F . 1992. Enterococcal and streptococcal species isolated from faeces of calves, young cattle and dairy cows. J Appl Bacteriol 72 : 29 31.[CrossRef][PubMed]
47. Scupham AJ,, Patton TG,, Bent E,, Bayles DO . 2008. Comparison of the cecal microbiota of domestic and wild turkeys. Microb Ecol 56 : 322 331.[CrossRef][PubMed]
48. Gong J,, Forster RJ,, Yu H,, Chambers JR,, Wheatcroft R,, Sabour PM,, Chen S . 2002. Molecular analysis of bacterial populations in the ileum of broiler chickens and comparison with bacteria in the cecum. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 41 : 171 179.[CrossRef][PubMed]
49. Devriese LA,, Hommez J,, Wijfels R,, Haesebrouck F . 1991. Composition of the enterococcal and streptococcal intestinal flora of poultry. J Appl Bacteriol 71 : 46 50.[CrossRef][PubMed]
50. Kojima A,, Morioka A,, Kijima M,, Ishihara K,, Asai T,, Fujisawa T,, Tamura Y,, Takahashi T . 2010. Classification and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus species isolated from apparently healthy food-producing animals in Japan. Zoonoses Public Health 57 : 137 141.[CrossRef][PubMed]
51. Iweriebor BC,, Obi LC,, Okoh AI . 2016. Macrolide, glycopeptide resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus species isolates from dairy cattle. J Med Microbiol 65 : 641 648.[CrossRef][PubMed]
52. Beukers AG,, Zaheer R,, Cook SR,, Stanford K,, Chaves AV,, Ward MP,, McAllister TA . 2015. Effect of in-feed administration and withdrawal of tylosin phosphate on antibiotic resistance in enterococci isolated from feedlot steers. Front Microbiol 6 : 483.[CrossRef][PubMed]
53. Hwang IY,, Ku HO,, Lim SK,, Park CK,, Jung GS,, Jung SC,, Nam HM . 2009. Species distribution and resistance patterns to growth-promoting antimicrobials of enterococci isolated from pigs and chickens in Korea. J Vet Diagn Invest 21 : 858 862.[CrossRef][PubMed]
54. Vancanneyt M,, Snauwaert C,, Cleenwerck I,, Baele M,, Descheemaeker P,, Goossens H,, Pot B,, Vandamme P,, Swings J,, Haesebrouck F,, Devriese LA . 2001. Enterococcus villorum sp. nov., an enteroadherent bacterium associated with diarrhoea in piglets. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51 : 393 400.[CrossRef][PubMed]
55. Liu Y,, Wang Y,, Schwarz S,, Li Y,, Shen Z,, Zhang Q,, Wu C,, Shen J . 2013. Transferable multiresistance plasmids carrying cfr in Enterococcus spp. from swine and farm environment. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57 : 42 48.[CrossRef][PubMed]
56. Devriese LA,, Cruz Colque JI,, De Herdt P,, Haesebrouck F . 1992. Identification and composition of the tonsillar and anal enterococcal and streptococcal flora of dogs and cats. J Appl Bacteriol 73 : 421 425.[CrossRef][PubMed]
57. Rodrigues J,, Poeta P,, Martins A,, Costa D . 2002. The importance of pets as reservoirs of resistant Enterococcus strains, with special reference to vancomycin. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 49 : 278 280.[CrossRef][PubMed]
58. Jackson CR,, Fedorka-Cray PJ,, Davis JA,, Barrett JB,, Frye JG . 2009. Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from dogs and cats in the United States. J Appl Microbiol 107 : 1269 1278.[CrossRef][PubMed]
59. Ben Said L,, Dziri R,, Sassi N,, Lozano C,, Ben Slama K,, Ouzari I,, Torres C,, Klibi N . 2017. Species distribution, antibiotic resistance and virulence traits in canine and feline enterococci in Tunisia. Acta Vet Hung 65 : 173 184.[CrossRef][PubMed]
60. Naser SM,, Vancanneyt M,, De Graef E,, Devriese LA,, Snauwaert C,, Lefebvre K,, Hoste B,, Svec P,, Decostere A,, Haesebrouck F,, Swings J . 2005. Enterococcus canintestini sp. nov., from faecal samples of healthy dogs. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55 : 2177 2182.[CrossRef][PubMed]
61. Baele M,, Devriese LA,, Butaye P,, Haesebrouck F . 2002. Composition of enterococcal and streptococcal flora from pigeon intestines. J Appl Microbiol 92 : 348 351.[CrossRef][PubMed]
62. Splichalova P,, Svec P,, Ghosh A,, Zurek L,, Oravcova V,, Radimersky T,, Bohus M,, Literak I . 2015. Prevalence, diversity and characterization of enterococci from three coraciiform birds. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 107 : 1281 1289.[CrossRef][PubMed]
63. Radhouani H,, Poeta P,, Gonçalves A,, Pacheco R,, Sargo R,, Igrejas G . 2012. Wild birds as biological indicators of environmental pollution: antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from common buzzards ( Buteo buteo). J Med Microbiol 61 : 837 843.[CrossRef][PubMed]
64. Silva N,, Igrejas G,, Rodrigues P,, Rodrigues T,, Gonçalves A,, Felgar AC,, Pacheco R,, Gonçalves D,, Cunha R,, Poeta P . 2011. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-containing Escherichia coli isolates in wild birds from the Azores Archipelago. Avian Pathol 40 : 473 479.[CrossRef][PubMed]
65. Marinho C,, Silva N,, Pombo S,, Santos T,, Monteiro R,, Gonçalves A,, Micael J,, Rodrigues P,, Costa AC,, Igrejas G,, Poeta P . 2013. Echinoderms from Azores islands: an unexpected source of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli isolates. Mar Pollut Bull 69 : 122 127.[CrossRef][PubMed]
66. Medeiros AW,, Blaese Amorim D,, Tavares M,, de Moura TM,, Franco AC,, d’Azevedo PA,, Frazzon J,, Frazzon AP . 2017. Enterococcus species diversity in fecal samples of wild marine species as determined by real-time PCR. Can J Microbiol 63 : 129 136.[CrossRef][PubMed]
67. Farnleitner AH,, Ryzinska-Paier G,, Reischer GH,, Burtscher MM,, Knetsch S,, Kirschner AK,, Dirnböck T,, Kuschnig G,, Mach RL,, Sommer R . 2010. Escherichia coli and enterococci are sensitive and reliable indicators for human, livestock and wildlife faecal pollution in alpine mountainous water resources. J Appl Microbiol 109 : 1599 1608.
68. Radhouani H,, Igrejas G,, Carvalho C,, Pinto L,, Gonçalves A,, Lopez M,, Sargo R,, Cardoso L,, Martinho A,, Rego V,, Rodrigues R,, Torres C,, Poeta P . 2011. Clonal lineages, antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from fecal samples of red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes). J Wildl Dis 47 : 769 773.[CrossRef][PubMed]
69. Lozano C,, González-Barrio D,, García JT,, Ceballos S,, Olea PP,, Ruiz-Fons F,, Torres C . 2015. Detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis ST6- vanB2 and E. faecium ST915- vanA in faecal samples of wild Rattus rattus in Spain. Vet Microbiol 177 : 168 174.[CrossRef][PubMed]
70. Fontana R,, Aldegheri M,, Ligozzi M,, Lopez H,, Sucari A,, Satta G . 1994. Overproduction of a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein and high-level ampicillin resistance in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38 : 1980 1983.[CrossRef][PubMed]
71. Ligozzi M,, Pittaluga F,, Fontana R . 1996. Modification of penicillin-binding protein 5 associated with high-level ampicillin resistance in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40 : 354 357.[PubMed]
72. Montealegre MC,, Roh JH,, Rae M,, Davlieva MG,, Singh KV,, Shamoo Y,, Murray BE . 2016. Differential penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) levels in the Enterococcus faecium clades with different levels of ampicillin resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 61 : e02034-16.[PubMed]
73. Jureen R,, Top J,, Mohn SC,, Harthug S,, Langeland N,, Willems RJ . 2003. Molecular characterization of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from hospitalized patients in Norway. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 2330 2336.[CrossRef][PubMed]
74. Poeta P,, Costa D,, Igrejas G,, Sáenz Y,, Zarazaga M,, Rodrigues J,, Torres C . 2007. Polymorphisms of the pbp5 gene and correlation with ampicillin resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolates of animal origin. J Med Microbiol 56 : 236 240.[CrossRef][PubMed]
75. Klibi N,, Sáenz Y,, Zarazaga M,, Ben Slama K,, Masmoudi A,, Ruiz-Larrea F,, Boudabous A,, Torres C . 2008. Polymorphism in pbp5 gene detected in clinical Enterococcus faecium strains with different ampicillin MICs from a Tunisian hospital. J Chemother 20 : 436 440.[CrossRef][PubMed]
76. Kristich CJ,, Rice LB,, Arias CA, . 2014. Enterococcal infection treatment and antibiotic resistance. In Gilmore MS,, Clewell DB,, Ike Y,, Shankar N (ed), Enterococci: from Commensals to Leading Causes of Drug Resistant Infection. Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston: MA.
77. Galloway-Peña JR,, Rice LB,, Murray BE . 2011. Analysis of PBP5 of early U.S. isolates of Enterococcus faecium: sequence variation alone does not explain increasing ampicillin resistance over time. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55 : 3272 3277.[CrossRef][PubMed]
78. Pietta E,, Montealegre MC,, Roh JH,, Cocconcelli PS,, Murray BE . 2014. Enterococcus faecium PBP5-S/R, the missing link between PBP5-S and PBP5-R. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58 : 6978 6981.[CrossRef][PubMed]
79. Lebreton F,, van Schaik W,, McGuire AM,, Godfrey P,, Griggs A,, Mazumdar V,, Corander J,, Cheng L,, Saif S,, Young S,, Zeng Q,, Wortman J,, Birren B,, Willems RJ,, Earl AM,, Gilmore MS . 2013. Emergence of epidemic multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium from animal and commensal strains. MBio 4 : e00534-13.[CrossRef][PubMed]
80. Ono S,, Muratani T,, Matsumoto T . 2005. Mechanisms of resistance to imipenem and ampicillin in Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 : 2954 2958.[CrossRef][PubMed]
81. Murray BE,, Lopardo HA,, Rubeglio EA,, Frosolono M,, Singh KV . 1992. Intrahospital spread of a single gentamicin-resistant, beta-lactamase-producing strain of Enterococcus faecalis in Argentina. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 36 : 230 232.[CrossRef][PubMed]
82. Coudron PE,, Markowitz SM,, Wong ES . 1992. Isolation of a beta-lactamase-producing, aminoglycoside-resistant strain of Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 36 : 1125 1126.[CrossRef][PubMed]
83. Sarti M,, Campanile F,, Sabia C,, Santagati M,, Gargiulo R,, Stefani S . 2012. Polyclonal diffusion of beta-lactamase-producing Enterococcus faecium. J Clin Microbiol 50 : 169 172.[CrossRef][PubMed]
84. Rice LB,, Carias LL,, Rudin S,, Lakticová V,, Wood A,, Hutton-Thomas R . 2005. Enterococcus faecium low-affinity pbp5 is a transferable determinant. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 : 5007 5012.[CrossRef][PubMed]
85. Novais C,, Freitas AR,, Silveira E,, Antunes P,, Silva R,, Coque TM,, Peixe L . 2013. Spread of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus to animals and humans: an underestimated role for the pig farm environment. J Antimicrob Chemother 68 : 2746 2754.[CrossRef][PubMed]
86. Novais C,, Tedim AP,, Lanza VF,, Freitas AR,, Silveira E,, Escada R,, Roberts AP,, Al-Haroni M,, Baquero F,, Peixe L,, Coque TM . 2016. Co-diversification of Enterococcus faecium core genomes and PBP5: evidences of pbp5 horizontal transfer. Front Microbiol 7 : 1581.[CrossRef][PubMed]
87. Barlow RS,, McMillan KE,, Duffy LL,, Fegan N,, Jordan D,, Mellor GE . 2017. Antimicrobial resistance status of Enterococcus from Australian cattle populations at slaughter. PLoS One 12 : e0177728.[CrossRef][PubMed]
88. Poeta P,, Costa D,, Rodrigues J,, Torres C . 2006. Antimicrobial resistance and the mechanisms implicated in faecal enterococci from healthy humans, poultry and pets in Portugal. Int J Antimicrob Agents 27 : 131 137.[CrossRef][PubMed]
89. Damborg P,, Top J,, Hendrickx AP,, Dawson S,, Willems RJ,, Guardabassi L . 2009. Dogs are a reservoir of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium lineages associated with human infections. Appl Environ Microbiol 75 : 2360 2365.[CrossRef][PubMed]
90. Gonçalves A,, Igrejas G,, Radhouani H,, Correia S,, Pacheco R,, Santos T,, Monteiro R,, Guerra A,, Petrucci-Fonseca F,, Brito F,, Torres C,, Poeta P . 2013. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal enterococci and Escherichia coli isolates recovered from Iberian wolf. Lett Appl Microbiol 56 : 268 274.[CrossRef][PubMed]
91. Barros J,, Igrejas G,, Andrade M,, Radhouani H,, López M,, Torres C,, Poeta P . 2011. Gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata) carrying antibiotic resistant enterococci. A potential bioindicator of marine contamination? Mar Pollut Bull 62 : 1245 1248.[CrossRef][PubMed]
92. Gonçalves A,, Igrejas G,, Radhouani H,, Santos T,, Monteiro R,, Pacheco R,, Alcaide E,, Zorrilla I,, Serra R,, Torres C,, Poeta P . 2013. Detection of antibiotic resistant enterococci and Escherichia coli in free range Iberian Lynx ( Lynx pardinus). Sci Total Environ 456-457 : 115 119.[CrossRef][PubMed]
93. DANMAP . 2014. Use of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, food and humans in Denmark. www.danmap.org.
94. Swedres-Svarm . 2015. Consumption of antibiotics and occurrence of antibiotic resistance in Sweden. Solna/Uppsala, Sweden.
95. NethMap-MARAN . 2015. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic usage in animals in the Netherlands in 2014. Nigmegen. SWAB. https://www.swab.nl/nethmap
96. Uttley AH,, George RC,, Naidoo J,, Woodford N,, Johnson AP,, Collins CH,, Morrison D,, Gilfillan AJ,, Fitch LE,, Heptonstall J . 1989. High-level vancomycin-resistant enterococci causing hospital infections. Epidemiol Infect 103 : 173 181.[CrossRef]
97. Leclercq R,, Derlot E,, Duval J,, Courvalin P . 1988. Plasmid-mediated resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin in Enterococcus faecium. N Engl J Med 319 : 157 161.[CrossRef][PubMed]
98. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control . 2017. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe 2016. Annual report of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net). ECDC, Stockholm, Sweden.
99. Lebreton F,, Depardieu F,, Bourdon N,, Fines-Guyon M,, Berger P,, Camiade S,, Leclercq R,, Courvalin P,, Cattoir V . 2011. d-Ala- d-Ser VanN-type transferable vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55 : 4606 4612.[CrossRef][PubMed]
100. Boyd DA,, Du T,, Hizon R,, Kaplen B,, Murphy T,, Tyler S,, Brown S,, Jamieson F,, Weiss K,, Mulvey MR . 2006. VanG-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated in Canada. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50 : 2217 2221.[CrossRef][PubMed]
101. Boyd DA,, Willey BM,, Fawcett D,, Gillani N,, Mulvey MR . 2008. Molecular characterization of Enterococcus faecalis N06-0364 with low-level vancomycin resistance harboring a novel d-Ala- d-Ser gene cluster, vanL. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 2667 2672.[CrossRef][PubMed]
102. Xu X,, Lin D,, Yan G,, Ye X,, Wu S,, Guo Y,, Zhu D,, Hu F,, Zhang Y,, Wang F,, Jacoby GA,, Wang M . 2010. vanM, a new glycopeptide resistance gene cluster found in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54 : 4643 4647.[CrossRef][PubMed]
103. Depardieu F,, Foucault ML,, Bell J,, Dubouix A,, Guibert M,, Lavigne JP,, Levast M,, Courvalin P . 2009. New combinations of mutations in VanD-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus avium strains. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53 : 1952 1963.[CrossRef][PubMed]
104. López M,, Rezusta A,, Seral C,, Aspiroz C,, Marne C,, Aldea MJ,, Ferrer I,, Revillo MJ,, Castillo FJ,, Torres C . 2012. Detection and characterization of a ST6 clone of vanB2- Enterococcus faecalis from three different hospitals in Spain. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31 : 257 260.[CrossRef][PubMed]
105. Patel R,, Piper K,, Cockerill FR III,, Steckelberg JM,, Yousten AA . 2000. The biopesticide Paenibacillus popilliae has a vancomycin resistance gene cluster homologous to the enterococcal VanA vancomycin resistance gene cluster. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44 : 705 709.[CrossRef][PubMed]
106. Hegstad K,, Mikalsen T,, Coque TM,, Werner G,, Sundsfjord A . 2010. Mobile genetic elements and their contribution to the emergence of antimicrobial resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Clin Microbiol Infect 16 : 541 554.[CrossRef][PubMed]
107. Arthur M,, Quintiliani R Jr . 2001. Regulation of VanA- and VanB-type glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45 : 375 381.[CrossRef][PubMed]
108. Arthur M,, Courvalin P . 1993. Genetics and mechanisms of glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 37 : 1563 1571.[CrossRef][PubMed]
109. López M,, Sáenz Y,, Alvarez-Martínez MJ,, Marco F,, Robredo B,, Rojo-Bezares B,, Ruiz-Larrea F,, Zarazaga M,, Torres C . 2010. Tn 1546 structures and multilocus sequence typing of vanA-containing enterococci of animal, human and food origin. J Antimicrob Chemother 65 : 1570 1575.[CrossRef][PubMed]
110. Werner G,, Strommenger B,, Witte W . 2008. Acquired vancomycin resistance in clinically relevant pathogens. Future Microbiol 3 : 547 562.[CrossRef][PubMed]
111. Patel R . 2003. Clinical impact of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. J Antimicrob Chemother 51( Suppl 3) : iii13 iii21.[CrossRef][PubMed]
112. Bager F,, Madsen M,, Christensen J,, Aarestrup FM . 1997. Avoparcin used as a growth promoter is associated with the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium on Danish poultry and pig farms. Prev Vet Med 31 : 95 112.[CrossRef]
113. Aarestrup FM,, Kruse H,, Tast E,, Hammerum AM,, Jensen LB . 2000. Associations between the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium from broilers and pigs in Denmark, Finland, and Norway. Microb Drug Resist 6 : 63 70.[CrossRef][PubMed]
114. Robredo B,, Singh KV,, Baquero F,, Murray BE,, Torres C . 1999. From vanA Enterococcus hirae to vanA Enterococcus faecium: a study of feed supplementation with avoparcin and tylosin in young chickens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43 : 1137 1143.[PubMed]
115. Klare I,, Badstübner D,, Konstabel C,, Böhme G,, Claus H,, Witte W . 1999. Decreased incidence of VanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from poultry meat and from fecal samples of humans in the community after discontinuation of avoparcin usage in animal husbandry. Microb Drug Resist 5 : 45 52.[CrossRef][PubMed]
116. Borgen K,, Sørum M,, Wasteson Y,, Kruse H . 2001. VanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) remain prevalent in poultry carcasses 3 years after avoparcin was banned. Int J Food Microbiol 64 : 89 94.[CrossRef]
117. Bortolaia V,, Mander M,, Jensen LB,, Olsen JE,, Guardabassi L . 2015. Persistence of vancomycin resistance in multiple clones of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Danish broilers 15 years after the ban of avoparcin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59 : 2926 2929.[CrossRef][PubMed]
118. Lauderdale TL,, Shiau YR,, Wang HY,, Lai JF,, Huang IW,, Chen PC,, Chen HY,, Lai SS,, Liu YF,, Ho M . 2007. Effect of banning vancomycin analogue avoparcin on vancomycin-resistant enterococci in chicken farms in Taiwan. Environ Microbiol 9 : 819 823.[CrossRef][PubMed]
119. van Belkun A,, van den Braak N,, Thomassen R,, Verbrugh H,, Endtz H . 1996. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in cats and dogs. Lancet 348 : 1038 1039.[CrossRef]
120. López M,, Tenorio C,, Torres C . 2013. Study of vancomycin resistance in faecal enterococci from healthy humans and dogs in Spain a decade after the avoparcin ban in Europe. Zoonoses Public Health 60 : 160 167.[CrossRef][PubMed]
121. Donabedian SM,, Perri MB,, Abdujamilova N,, Gordoncillo MJ,, Naqvi A,, Reyes KC,, Zervos MJ,, Bartlett P . 2010. Characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from swine in three Michigan counties. J Clin Microbiol 48 : 4156 4160.[CrossRef][PubMed]
122. Gordoncillo MJ,, Donabedian S,, Bartlett PC,, Perri M,, Zervos M,, Kirkwood R,, Febvay C . 2013. Isolation and molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from swine in Michigan, USA. Zoonoses Public Health 60 : 319 326.[CrossRef][PubMed]
123. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . 1993. Nosocomial enterococci resistant to vancomycin: United States, 1989–1993. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 42 : 597599.[PubMed]
124. Goossens H . 1998. Spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: differences between the United States and Europe. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 19 : 546 551.[CrossRef][PubMed]
125. Johnsen PJ,, Østerhus JI,, Sletvold H,, Sørum M,, Kruse H,, Nielsen K,, Simonsen GS,, Sundsfjord A . 2005. Persistence of animal and human glycopeptide-resistant enterococci on two Norwegian poultry farms formerly exposed to avoparcin is associated with a widespread plasmid-mediated vanA element within a polyclonal enterococcus faecium population. Appl Environ Microbiol 71 : 159 168.[CrossRef][PubMed]
126. van den Bogaard AE,, Willems R,, London N,, Top J,, Stobberingh EE . 2002. Antibiotic resistance of faecal enterococci in poultry, poultry farmers and poultry slaughterers. J Antimicrob Chemother 49 : 497 505.[CrossRef][PubMed]
127. Sørum M,, Johnsen PJ,, Aasnes B,, Rosvoll T,, Kruse H,, Sundsfjord A,, Simonsen GS . 2006. Prevalence, persistence, and molecular characterization of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci in Norwegian poultry and poultry farmers 3 to 8 years after the ban on avoparcin. Appl Environ Microbiol 72 : 516 521.[CrossRef][PubMed]
128. Robredo B,, Singh KV,, Baquero F,, Murray BE,, Torres C . 2000. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from animals and food. Int J Food Microbiol 54 : 197 204.[CrossRef]
129. Nilsson O,, Greko C,, Top J,, Franklin A,, Bengtsson B . 2009. Spread without known selective pressure of a vancomycin-resistant clone of Enterococcus faecium among broilers. J Antimicrob Chemother 63 : 868 872.[CrossRef][PubMed]
130. Ghidán A,, Kaszanyitzky EJ,, Dobay O,, Nagy K,, Amyes SG,, Rozgonyi F . 2008a. Distribution and genetic relatedness of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated from healthy slaughtered chickens in Hungary from 2001 to 2004. Acta Vet Hung 56 : 13 25.[CrossRef][PubMed]
131. Manson JM,, Smith JM,, Cook GM . 2004. Persistence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in New Zealand broilers after discontinuation of avoparcin use. Appl Environ Microbiol 70 : 5764 5768.[CrossRef][PubMed]
132. Kolar M,, Pantucek R,, Bardon J,, Cekanova L,, Kesselova M,, Sauer P,, Vagnerova I,, Koukalová D . 2005. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in humans and animals in the Czech Republic between 2002 and 2004. J Med Microbiol 54 : 965 967.[CrossRef][PubMed]
133. Jung WK,, Lim JY,, Kwon NH,, Kim JM,, Hong SK,, Koo HC,, Kim SH,, Park YH . 2007. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci from animal sources in Korea. Int J Food Microbiol 113 : 102 107.[CrossRef][PubMed]
134. Tremblay CL,, Letellier A,, Quessy S,, Boulianne M,, Daignault D,, Archambault M . 2011. Multiple-antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from cecal contents in broiler chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Canada and plasmid colocalization of tetO and ermB genes. J Food Prot 74 : 1639 1648.[CrossRef][PubMed]
135. Boulianne M,, Arsenault J,, Daignault D,, Archambault M,, Letellier A,, Dutil L . 2016. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada. Can J Vet Res 80 : 49 59.[PubMed]
136. Poeta P,, Costa D,, Rodrigues J,, Torres C . 2005. Study of faecal colonization by vanA-containing Enterococcus strains in healthy humans, pets, poultry and wild animals in Portugal. J Antimicrob Chemother 55 : 278 280.[CrossRef][PubMed]
137. Ghidán A,, Dobay O,, Kaszanyitzky EJ,, Samu P,, Amyes SG,, Nagy K,, Rozgonyi F . 2008. Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) still persist in slaughtered poultry in hungary 8 years after the ban on avoparcin. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 55 : 409 417.[CrossRef][PubMed]
138. Tzavaras I,, Siarkou VI,, Zdragas A,, Kotzamanidis C,, Vafeas G,, Bourtzi-Hatzopoulou E,, Pournaras S,, Sofianou D . 2012. Diversity of vanA-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers, poultry slaughterers and hospitalized humans in Greece. J Antimicrob Chemother 67 : 1811 1818.[CrossRef][PubMed]
139. Sting R,, Richter A,, Popp C,, Hafez HM . 2013. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in turkey flocks. Poult Sci 92 : 346 351.[CrossRef][PubMed]
140. Obeng AS,, Rickard H,, Ndi O,, Sexton M,, Barton M . 2013. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance patterns in enterococci from intensive and free range chickens in Australia. Avian Pathol 42 : 45 54.[CrossRef][PubMed]
141. Maasjost J,, Mühldorfer K,, Hafez HM,, Hafez HM,, Cortez de Jäckel S . 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Enterococcus faecalis an Enterococcus faecium isolated from poultry flocks in Germany. Avian Dis 59 : 143 148.[CrossRef][PubMed]
142. Stępień-Pyśniak D,, Marek A,, Banach T,, Adaszek Ł,, Pyzik E,, Wilczyński J,, Winiarczyk S . 2016. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry. Acta Vet Hung 64 : 148 163.[CrossRef][PubMed]
143. Bertelloni F,, Salvadori C,, Moni A,, Cerri D,, Mani P,, Ebani VV . 2015. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from laying hens of backyard poultry floks. Ann Agric Environ Med 22 : 665 669.[CrossRef][PubMed]
144. Nilsson O,, Greko C,, Bengtsson B . 2009. Environmental contamination by vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish broiler production. Acta Vet Scand 51 : 49.[CrossRef][PubMed]
145. Torres C,, Tenorio C,, Portillo A,, García M,, Martínez C,, Del Campo R,, Ruiz-Larrea F,, Zarazaga M . 2003. Intestinal colonization by vanA- or vanB2-containing enterococcal isolates of healthy animals in Spain. Microb Drug Resist 9( Suppl 1) : S47 S52.[CrossRef][PubMed]
146. Herrero IA,, Teshager T,, Garde J,, Moreno MA,, Domínguez L . 2000. Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in pig faeces from slaughterhouses in Spain. Prev Vet Med 47 : 255 262.[CrossRef]
147. Iweriebor BC,, Obi LC,, Okoh AI . 2015. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance factors of Enterococcus spp. isolated from fecal samples from piggery farms in Eastern Cape, South Africa. BMC Microbiol 15 : 136.[CrossRef][PubMed]
148. Fard RM,, Heuzenroeder MW,, Barton MD . 2011. Antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance in commensal enterococci isolated from pigs. Vet Microbiol 148 : 276 282.[CrossRef][PubMed]
149. Bustamante W,, Alpízar A,, Hernández S,, Pacheco A,, Vargas N,, Herrera ML,, Vargas A,, Caballero M,, García F . 2003. Predominance of vanA genotype among vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus isolates from poultry and swine in Costa Rica. Appl Environ Microbiol 69 : 7414 7419.[CrossRef][PubMed]
150. Kühn I,, Iversen A,, Finn M,, Greko C,, Burman LG,, Blanch AR,, Vilanova X,, Manero A,, Taylor H,, Caplin J,, Domínguez L,, Herrero IA,, Moreno MA,, Möllby R . 2005. Occurrence and relatedness of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in animals, humans, and the environment in different European regions. Appl Environ Microbiol 71 : 5383 5390.[CrossRef][PubMed]
151. García-Migura L,, Pleydell E,, Barnes S,, Davies RH,, Liebana E . 2005. Characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcusfaecium isolates from broiler poultry and pig farms in England and Wales. J Clin Microbiol 43 : 3283 3289.[CrossRef][PubMed]
152. Kempf I,, Hellard G,, Perrin-Guyomard A,, Gicquel-Bruneau M,, Sanders P,, Leclercq R . 2008. Prevalence of high-level vancomycin-resistant enterococci in French broilers and pigs. Int J Antimicrob Agents 32 : 463 464.[CrossRef][PubMed]
153. Liu Y,, Liu K,, Lai J,, Wu C,, Shen J,, Wang Y . 2013. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species of food animal origin from Beijing and Shandong Province, China. J Appl Microbiol 114 : 555 563.[CrossRef][PubMed]
154. Ngbede EO,, Raji MA,, Kwanashie CN,, Kwaga JKP . 2017. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile of enterococci isolated from poultry and cattle sources in Nigeria. Trop Anim Health Prod 49 : 451 458.[CrossRef][PubMed]
155. Bekele B,, Ashenafi M . 2010. Distribution of drug resistance among enterococci and Salmonella from poultry and cattle in Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod 42 : 857 864.[CrossRef][PubMed]
156. Ho PL,, Lai E,, Chan PY,, Lo WU,, Chow KH . 2013. Rare occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium among livestock animals in China. J Antimicrob Chemother 68 : 2948 2949.[CrossRef][PubMed]
157. Eisner A,, Feierl G,, Gorkiewicz G,, Dieber F,, Kessler HH,, Marth E,, Köfer J . 2005. High prevalence of VanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Austrian poultry. Appl Environ Microbiol 71 : 6407 6409.[CrossRef][PubMed]
158. Haenni M,, Saras E,, Châtre P,, Meunier D,, Martin S,, Lepage G,, Ménard MF,, Lebreton P,, Rambaud T,, Madec JY . 2009. vanA in Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus casseliflavus detected in French cattle. Foodborne Pathog Dis 6 : 1107 1111.[CrossRef][PubMed]
159. de Niederhäusern S,, Sabia C,, Messi P,, Guerrieri E,, Manicardi G,, Bondi M . 2007. VanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci in equine and swine rectal swabs and in human clinical samples. Curr Microbiol 55 : 240 246.[CrossRef][PubMed]
160. Ramos S,, Igrejas G,, Rodrigues J,, Capelo-Martínez JL,, Poeta P . 2012. Genetic characterisation of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in vanA-containing enterococci from cattle, sheep and pigs subsequent to the discontinuation of the use of avoparcin. Vet J 193 : 301 303.[CrossRef][PubMed]
161. Hershberger E,, Oprea SF,, Donabedian SM,, Perri M,, Bozigar P,, Bartlett P,, Zervos MJ . 2005. Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci of animal origin. J Antimicrob Chemother 55 : 127 130.[CrossRef][PubMed]
162. Song JY,, Hwang IS,, Eom JS,, Cheong HJ,, Bae WK,, Park YH,, Kim WJ . 2005. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains isolated from animals and humans in Korea. Korean J Intern Med (Korean Assoc Intern Med) 20 : 55 62.[CrossRef]
163. Lim SK,, Kim TS,, Lee HS,, Nam HM,, Joo YS,, Koh HB . 2006. Persistence of vanA-type Enterococcus faecium in Korean livestock after ban on avoparcin. Microb Drug Resist 12 : 136 139.[CrossRef][PubMed]
164. Gonçalves A,, Poeta P,, Silva N,, Araújo C,, López M,, Ruiz E,, Uliyakina I,, Direitinho J,, Igrejas G,, Torres C . 2010. Characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from fecal samples of ostriches by molecular methods. Foodborne Pathog Dis 7 : 1133 1136.[CrossRef][PubMed]
165. Araújo C,, Torres C,, Gonçalves A,, Carneiro C,, López M,, Radhouani H,, Pardal M,, Igrejas G,, Poeta P . 2011. Genetic detection and multilocus sequence typing of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains from mullets fish ( Liza ramada). Microb Drug Resist 17 : 357 361.[CrossRef][PubMed]
166. Yoshimura H,, Ishimaru M,, Endoh YS,, Suginaka M,, Yamatani S . 1998. Isolation of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci from chicken in Japan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42 : 3333.[PubMed]
167. Butaye P,, Van Damme K,, Devriese LA,, Van Damme L,, Bael M,, Lauwers S,, Haesebrouck F . 2000. In vitro susceptibility of Enterococcus faecium isolated from food to growth-promoting and therapeutic antibiotics. Int J Food Microbiol 54 : 181 187.[CrossRef]
168. Harada T,, Kawahara R,, Kanki M,, Taguchi M,, Kumeda Y . 2012. Isolation and characterization of vanA genotype vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus cecorum from retail poultry in Japan. Int J Food Microbiol 153 : 372 377.[CrossRef][PubMed]
169. Donado-Godoy P,, Byrne BA,, León M,, Castellanos R,, Vanegas C,, Coral A,, Arevalo A,, Clavijo V,, Vargas M,, Romero Zuñiga JJ,, Tafur M,, Pérez-Gutierrez E,, Smith WA . 2015. Prevalence, resistance patterns, and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from retail chicken meat in Colombia. J Food Prot 78 : 751 759.[CrossRef][PubMed]
170. Kasimoglu-Dogru A,, Gencay YE,, Ayaz ND . 2010. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of Enterococcus species in chicken at slaughter level; absence of vanA and vanB genes in E. faecalis and E. faecium. Res Vet Sci 89 : 153 158.[CrossRef][PubMed]
171. Harwood VJ,, Brownell M,, Perusek W,, Whitlock JE . 2001. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. isolated from wastewater and chicken feces in the United States. Appl Environ Microbiol 67 : 4930 4933.[CrossRef][PubMed]
172. Wilson IG,, McAfee GG . 2002. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in shellfish, unchlorinated waters, and chicken. Int J Food Microbiol 79 : 143 151.[CrossRef]
173. Novais C,, Coque TM,, Costa MJ,, Sousa JC,, Baquero F,, Peixe LV . 2005. High occurrence and persistence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in poultry food samples in Portugal. J Antimicrob Chemother 56 : 1139 1143.[CrossRef][PubMed]
174. Lemcke R,, Bülte M . 2000. Occurrence of the vancomycin-resistant genes vanA, vanB, vanCl, vanC2 and vanC3 in Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry and pork. Int J Food Microbiol 60 : 185 194.[CrossRef]
175. Del Grosso M,, Caprioli A,, Chinzari P,, Fontana MC,, Pezzotti G,, Manfrin A,, Giannatale ED,, Goffredo E,, Pantosti A . 2000. Detection and characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in farm animals and raw meat products in Italy. Microb Drug Resist 6 : 313 318.[CrossRef][PubMed]
176. Gambarotto K,, Ploy MC,, Dupron F,, Giangiobbe M,, Denis F . 2001. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in pork and poultry products from a cattle-rearing area of France. J Clin Microbiol 39 : 2354 2355.[CrossRef][PubMed]
177. Nomura T,, Tanimoto K,, Shibayama K,, Arakawa Y,, Fujimoto S,, Ike Y,, Tomita H . 2012. Identification of VanN-type vancomycin resistance in an Enterococcus faecium isolate from chicken meat in Japan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56 : 6389 6392.[CrossRef][PubMed]
178. Peters J,, Mac K,, Wichmann-Schauer H,, Klein G,, Ellerbroek L . 2003. Species distribution and antibiotic resistance patterns of enterococci isolated from food of animal origin in Germany. Int J Food Microbiol 88 : 311 314.[CrossRef]
179. Delpech G,, Pourcel G,, Schell C,, De Luca M,, Basualdo J,, Bernstein J,, Grenovero S,, Sparo M . 2012. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from artisanal food of animal origin in Argentina. Foodborne Pathog Dis 9 : 939 944.[CrossRef][PubMed]
180. Talebi M,, Sadeghi J,, Rahimi F,, Pourshafie MR . 2015. Isolation and biochemical fingerprinting of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from meat, chicken and cheese. Jundishapur J Microbiol 8 : e15815.[CrossRef]
181. Gousia P,, Economou V,, Bozidis P,, Papadopoulou C . 2015. Vancomycin-resistance phenotypes, vancomycin-resistance genes, and resistance to antibiotics of enterococci isolated from food of animal origin. Foodborne Pathog Dis 12 : 214 220.[CrossRef][PubMed]
182. Pesavento G,, Calonico C,, Ducci B,, Magnanini A,, Lo Nostro A . 2014. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from retail cheese, ready-to-eat salads, ham, and raw meat. Food Microbiol 41 : 1 7.[CrossRef]
183. Sánchez Valenzuela A,, Lavilla Lerma L,, Benomar N,, Gálvez A,, Pérez Pulido R,, Abriouel H . 2013. Phenotypic and molecular antibiotic resistance profile of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from different traditional fermented foods. Foodborne Pathog Dis 10 : 143 149.[CrossRef][PubMed]
184. Pantosti A,, Del Grosso M,, Tagliabue S,, Macrì A,, Caprioli A . 1999. Decrease of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in poultry meat after avoparcin ban. Lancet 354 : 741 742.[CrossRef]
185. Hayes JR,, English LL,, Carter PJ,, Proescholdt T,, Lee KY,, Wagner DD,, White DG . 2003. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species isolated from retail meats. Appl Environ Microbiol 69 : 7153 7160.[CrossRef][PubMed]
186. Hiroi M,, Kawamori F,, Harada T,, Sano Y,, Miwa N,, Sugiyama K,, Hara-Kudo Y,, Masuda T . 2012. Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens from retail raw meats and food-producing animals in Japan. J Food Prot 75 : 1774 1782.[CrossRef][PubMed]
187. Aslam M,, Diarra MS,, Checkley S,, Bohaychuk V,, Masson L . 2012. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus spp. isolated from retail meats in Alberta, Canada. Int J Food Microbiol 156 : 222 230.[CrossRef]
188. López M,, Sáenz Y,, Rojo-Bezares B,, Martínez S,, del Campo R,, Ruiz-Larrea F,, Zarazaga M,, Torres C . 2009. Detection of vanA and vanB2-containing enterococci from food samples in Spain, including Enterococcus faecium strains of CC17 and the new singleton ST425. Int J Food Microbiol 133 : 172 178.[CrossRef][PubMed]
189. Jahan M,, Krause DO,, Holley RA . 2013. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species from meat and fermented meat products isolated by a PCR-based rapid screening method. Int J Food Microbiol 163 : 89 95.[CrossRef][PubMed]
190. Guerrero-Ramos E,, Molina-González D,, Blanco-Morán S,, Igrejas G,, Poeta P,, Alonso-Calleja C,, Capita R . 2016a. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genotypic characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in meat preparations. J Food Prot 79 : 748 756.[CrossRef][PubMed]
191. Jamet E,, Akary E,, Poisson MA,, Chamba JF,, Bertrand X,, Serror P . 2012. Prevalence and characterization of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis in French cheeses. Food Microbiol 31 : 191 198.[CrossRef][PubMed]
192. de Garnica ML,, Valdezate S,, Gonzalo C,, Saez-Nieto JA . 2013. Presence of the vanC1 gene in a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strain isolated from ewe bulk tank milk. J Med Microbiol 62 : 494 495.[CrossRef][PubMed]
193. Osman KM,, Ali MN,, Radwan I,, ElHofy F,, Abed AH,, Orabi A,, Fawzy NM . 2016. Dispersion of the vancomycin resistance genes vanA and vanC of Enterococcus isolated from Nile Tilapia on retail sale: a public health hazard. Front Microbiol 7 : 1354.[CrossRef][PubMed]
194. Tansuphasiri U,, Khaminthakul D,, Pandii W . 2006. Antibiotic resistance of enterococci isolated from frozen foods and environmental water. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37 : 162 170.[PubMed]
195. Simjee S,, White DG,, McDermott PF,, Wagner DD,, Zervos MJ,, Donabedian SM,, English LL,, Hayes JR,, Walker RD . 2002. Characterization of Tn 1546 in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from canine urinary tract infections: evidence of gene exchange between human and animal enterococci. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 4659 4665.[CrossRef][PubMed]
196. Herrero IA,, Fernández-Garayzábal JF,, Moreno MA,, Domínguez L . 2004. Dogs should be included in surveillance programs for vancomycin-resistant enterococci. J Clin Microbiol 42 : 1384 1385.[CrossRef][PubMed]
197. Ghosh A,, Dowd SE,, Zurek L . 2011. Dogs leaving the ICU carry a very large multi-drug resistant enterococcal population with capacity for biofilm formation and horizontal gene transfer. PLoS One 6 : e22451.[CrossRef][PubMed]