Chapter 18 : Tuberculous Otomastoiditis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Tuberculous Otomastoiditis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819866/9781555819859_Chap18-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819866/9781555819859_Chap18-2.gif


Tuberculous otitis media and tuberculous mastoiditis occur together as a single disease process and are referred to herein as tuberculous otomastoiditis. One year after the isolation of the tubercle bacillus by Koch in 1882, the organism was cultured from a middle-ear lesion. Otologic tuberculosis was relegated to the status of “other” in the list of localizations of tuberculosis by the American Thoracic Society in their 1981 ( ) and receives no mention in more recent guidelines ( ). Presumably, it was given this status because tuberculosis of the ear is extremely uncommon in the United States (11 cases reported from 1990 through 2003) ( ). However, there are still occasional patients who have chronically draining ears due to infection ( ). Additionally, tuberculosis remains a problem in the United States, as overall incidence has plateaued and reported cases have recently increased ( ). These increasing numbers of tuberculosis cases in both U.S.- and foreign-born populations coupled with growing rates of immunosuppressed patients, such as transplant recipients, those receiving tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors, and those with human immunodeficiency virus infection, will likely spawn other cases of tuberculous otomastoiditis; therefore, a brief summary of the problem is justified.

Citation: Hand J, Pankey G. 2017. Tuberculous Otomastoiditis, p 309-312. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Seventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0020-2016
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. American Thoracic Society . 1981. Diagnostic standards and classification of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases (14th edition). Am Rev Respir Dis 123 : 343358.[PubMed]
2. American Thoracic Society and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . 2000. Diagnostic standards and classification of tuberculosis in adults and children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161 : 13761395.[PubMed]
3. Chirch LM,, Ahmad K,, Spinner W,, Jimenez VE,, Donelan SV,, Smouha E . 2005. Tuberculous otitis media: report of 2 cases on Long Island, N.Y., and a review of all cases reported in the United States from 1990 through 2003. Ear Nose Throat J 84 : 488, 490, 492, passim. [PubMed]
4. Kirsch CM,, Wehner JH,, Jensen WA,, Kagawa FT,, Campagna AC . 1995. Tuberculous otitis media. South Med J 88 : 363 366.[PubMed]
5. Salinas JL,, Mindra G,, Haddad MB,, Pratt R,, Price SF,, Langer AJ . 2016. Leveling of tuberculosis incidence—United States, 2013–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 65 : 273 278.[PubMed]
6. Vaamonde P,, Castro C,, García-Soto N,, Labella T,, Lozano A . 2004. Tuberculous otitis media: a significant diagnostic challenge. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130 : 759 766.[PubMed]
7. Plester D,, Pusalkar A,, Steinbach E . 1980. Middle ear tuberculosis. J Laryngol Otol 94 : 1415 1421.[PubMed]
8. Skolnik PR,, Nadol JB Jr,, Baker AS . 1986. Tuberculosis of the middle ear: review of the literature with an instructive case report. Rev Infect Dis 8 : 403 410.[PubMed]
9. Sonmez G,, Turhan V,, Senol MG,, Ozturk E,, Sildiroglu HO,, Mutlu H . 2008. Relationship between tuberculous otomastoiditis and tuberculous meningitis. J Laryngol Otol 122 : 893 897.[PubMed]
10. Sellars SL,, Seid AB . 1973. Aural tuberculosis in childhood. S Afr Med J 47 : 216 218.[PubMed]
11. Ramages LJ,, Gertler R . 1985. Aural tuberculosis: a series of 25 patients. J Laryngol Otol 99 : 1073 1080.[PubMed]
12. Rice DH . 1977. Tuberculosis. Pathological quiz case 2. Arch Otolaryngol 103 : 112 113, 115.[PubMed]
13. Smoler J,, Pinto SL,, Vivar G,, Ramirez JL . 1969. Tuberculous otitis media. Laryngoscope 79 : 488 493.[PubMed]
14. Smith MHD,, Starke JR,, Marquis JR, . 1992. Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections, p 1339. In Feigin RD,, Cherry JD (ed), Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 3rd ed, vol 1. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
15. Fan L,, Chen Z,, Hao XH,, Hu ZY,, Xiao HP . 2012. Interferon-gamma release assays for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 65 : 456 466.[PubMed]
16. Azghay M,, Bouchaud O,, Mechaï F,, Nicaise P,, Fain O,, Stirnemann J . 2016. Utility of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay in adult, pulmonary and extrapulmonary, active tuberculosis diagnosis. Int J Infect Dis 44 : 25 30.[PubMed]
17. Saltzman SJ,, Feigin RD . 1971. Tuberculous otitis media and mastoiditis. J Pediatr 79 : 1004 1006.[PubMed]
18. Garcovich A,, Romano L,, Zampetti A,, Garcovich S,, Ardito F,, Posteraro B,, Sanguinetti M,, Fadda G . 2004. Tumour-like ear lesion due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction-reverse hybridization. Br J Dermatol 150 : 370 371.[PubMed]
19. Tompkins KM,, Reimers MA,, White BL,, Herce ME . 2016. Diagnosis of concurrent pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculous otitis media confirmed by Xpert MTB/RIF in the United States. Infect Dis Clin Pract (Baltimore) 24 : 180 182.[PubMed]
20. Cho YS,, Lee HS,, Kim SW,, Chung KH,, Lee DK,, Koh WJ,, Kim MG . 2006. Tuberculous otitis media: a clinical and radiologic analysis of 52 patients. Laryngoscope 116 : 921 927.[PubMed]
21. Cawthon T,, Cox RH,, Pankey GA . 1978. Tuberculous otitis media with complications. South Med J 71 : 602 604.[PubMed]
22. Mongkolrattanothai K,, Oram R,, Redleaf M,, Bova J,, Englund JA . 2003. Tuberculous otitis media with mastoiditis and central nervous system involvement. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22 : 453 456.[PubMed]
23. Awan MS,, Salahuddin I . 2002. Tuberculous otitis media: two case reports and literature review. Ear Nose Throat J 81 : 792 794.[PubMed]
24. Lucente FE,, Tobias GW,, Parisier SC,, Som PM . 1978. Tuberculous otitis media. Laryngoscope 88 : 1107 1116.[PubMed]
25. Abes GT,, Abes FL,, Jamir JC . 2011. The variable clinical presentation of tuberculosis otitis media and the importance of early detection. Otol Neurotol 32 : 539 543.[PubMed]
26. Akkara SA,, Singhania A,, Akkara AG,, Shah A,, Adalja M,, Chauhan N . 2014. A study of manifestations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the ENT region. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 66 : 46 50.[PubMed]
27. Diplan Rubio JM,, Alarcón AV,, Díaz MP,, Vales O,, Hinojosa R,, Del Angel JM,, Romero D,, Sánchez Y . 2015. Neuro-otologic manifestations of tuberculosis. “The great imitator.” Am J Otolaryngol 36 : 467 471.[PubMed]


Generic image for table
Table 1

Frequencies of signs and symptoms in patients with tuberculous otomastoiditis

Citation: Hand J, Pankey G. 2017. Tuberculous Otomastoiditis, p 309-312. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Seventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0020-2016

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error