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Listeriosis is an atypical foodborne illness of major public health concern because of the severity of the disease (meningitis, septicemia, and spontaneous abortion), the high case fatality rate (approximately 20 to 30%), the long incubation time (up to 70 days), and a predilection for individuals who have an underlying condition that leads to impairment of T-cell-mediated immunity. Control of in foods represents a significantly greater challenge than most foodborne pathogens in that it is widely distributed in the environment, is resistant to diverse environmental conditions, including low pH and high NaCl concentrations, and is facultatively anaerobic and psychrotrophic. The various ways in which can enter food processing plants, its capacity for prolonged survival in the environment (soil, plants, and water), on foods, and in food processing plants, and its ability to grow at low temperatures (2 to 4°C) and to survive in biofilms or on/in foods and food contact surfaces for prolonged periods under adverse conditions have made this bacterium a major concern of the agrifood industry for more than 25 years.

Citation: Ryser E, Buchanan R, den Bakker H. 2019. , p 451-486. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.1
Figure 17.1

Potential routes of transmission of . Circles or ovals indicate areas of greatest risk of multiplication. Boxes indicate where direct consumption of minimally processed products (whole fresh vegetables, cooked carcass cuts of meat and fish, and effectively pasteurized milk) presents a low risk. Double arrows indicate consumer risk. Adapted from reference .

Citation: Ryser E, Buchanan R, den Bakker H. 2019. , p 451-486. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch17
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Figure 17.2

Schematic representation of the pathophysiology of infection.

Citation: Ryser E, Buchanan R, den Bakker H. 2019. , p 451-486. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.3
Figure 17.3

Schematic representation of the successive steps of the cell infection process. Factors implicated in the different steps are indicated.

Citation: Ryser E, Buchanan R, den Bakker H. 2019. , p 451-486. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.4
Figure 17.4

Directional actin polymerization by . isolates were processed for triple-labeling fluorescence microscopy, 5 h after the infection of Vero cells was started. Bacteria (red) were visualized with a polyclonal anti- antibody, actin (green) with phalloidin, and cell nuclei (blue) with DAPI (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole). Magnification, ×100.

Citation: Ryser E, Buchanan R, den Bakker H. 2019. , p 451-486. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.5
Figure 17.5

Schematic representation of virulence factors. The localization of factors implicated in adhesion (green), entry (blue), escape from the phagosome and intracellular growth (red), and intracytoplasmic movement and cell-to-cell spreading (purple) is indicated. The names of factors whose expression is regulated by PrfA are in orange. PI-PLC, phosphoinositide-phospholipase C; PC-PLC, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C.

Citation: Ryser E, Buchanan R, den Bakker H. 2019. , p 451-486. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch17
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