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Chapter 22 : Mycotoxins

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Abstract:

Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites which can cause disease or death in humans and domestic animals. Since the discovery of mycotoxins, some species of fungi have emerged as a significant health issue because of their potential to produce mycotoxins, thereby resulting in a public health concern. The most important mycotoxins are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone. This chapter provides an overview of the fungal sources of these mycotoxins, their ecology, the occurrence in foods, the significance in human health, methods for their analysis, and strategies to manage the risk from these contaminants.

Citation: Taniwaki M, Pitt J. 2019. Mycotoxins, p 587-608. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch22
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Figure 22.1

Structures of aflatoxin B, aflatoxin G, aflatoxin M, and OTA.

Citation: Taniwaki M, Pitt J. 2019. Mycotoxins, p 587-608. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.2
Figure 22.2

(a) , CYA, 7 days at 25°C; (b) fruiting structure (bar, 20 mm); (c) conidia (bar, 5 mm); (d) , CYA, 7 days at 25°C; (e) fruiting structure (bar, 10 mm); (f) conidia (bar, 5 mm).

Citation: Taniwaki M, Pitt J. 2019. Mycotoxins, p 587-608. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.3
Figure 22.3

(a) , CYA, 7 days at 25°C; (b) fruiting structure (bar, 20 mm); (c) conidia (bar, 5 mm); (d) , CYA, 7 days at 25°C; (e) fruiting structure (bar, 40 mm); (f) conidia (bar, 5 mm); (g) , CYA, 7 days at 25°C; (h) fruiting structure (bar, 10 mm); (i) conidia (bar, 5 mm).

Citation: Taniwaki M, Pitt J. 2019. Mycotoxins, p 587-608. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.4
Figure 22.4

Structures of fumonisin B, DON, and ZEA.

Citation: Taniwaki M, Pitt J. 2019. Mycotoxins, p 587-608. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.5
Figure 22.5

(a) , PDA, 7 days at 25°C; (b) macroconidia (bar, 10 mm); (c) , PDA, 7 days at 25°C; (d) macroconidia (bar, 10 mm).

Citation: Taniwaki M, Pitt J. 2019. Mycotoxins, p 587-608. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch22
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