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Chapter 25 : Protozoan Parasites

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Abstract:

Protozoan parasites have been linked to human illnesses since antiquity and have been associated with outbreaks of foodborne and waterborne illness. Microorganisms such as amoebas, flagellates, ciliates, and coccidians are the most common in this group. and are most frequently associated with consumption of undercooked meats, whereas , , , , and the amoebas are mostly associated with consumption of contaminated water and fresh produce (vegetables and fruits). Foodborne transmission of has also been reported, particularly in South and Central America, when infected insects or their feces are consumed in fruit juice preparations. , a coccidian parasite, is endemic to various locations worldwide and was responsible for a number of U.S. foodborne-illness outbreaks in the 1990s as a result of consumption of imported berries and in the past 5 years after consumption of imported salad greens and cilantro. infection has been diagnosed in ill travelers complaining of muscular pains; transmission was associated with consumption of improperly cooked meats from Southeast Asia. Most parasites are inactivated by heating at high temperatures and in some instances by prolonged storage under freezing conditions, but parasites are highly resistant to chemical disinfection. Increased travel to tropical areas and consumer demands for off-season produce have resulted in globalization of the food supply. Along with the advantages of globalization, the incidental spread of foodborne parasites has also increased. The biology, epidemiology, inactivation, treatment, and control of foodborne parasites are addressed in this chapter.

Citation: Ortega Y. 2019. Protozoan Parasites, p 667-691. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch25
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Figures

Image of Figure 25.1
Figure 25.1

Scanning electron micrographs of oocysts and excysting sporozoites of . (A) Intact oocyst prior to excystation (magnification, ×11,200). (B) Three sporozoites (Sp) excysting from oocyst simultaneously via the cleaved suture (Su) (magnification, ×11,200). (C) Empty oocyst (magnification, ×11,200). (D) Excysted sporozoite (magnification, ×9,800). Ae, apical end. Reprinted from reference .

Citation: Ortega Y. 2019. Protozoan Parasites, p 667-691. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch25
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Image of Figure 25.2
Figure 25.2

Life cycle of . From reference .

Citation: Ortega Y. 2019. Protozoan Parasites, p 667-691. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch25
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Image of Figure 25.3
Figure 25.3

Acid-fast staining. (A) . (B) . (C) . Bars = 20 μm.

Citation: Ortega Y. 2019. Protozoan Parasites, p 667-691. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch25
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Image of Figure 25.4
Figure 25.4

oocysts. (A) Phase-contrast microscopy of unsporulated oocysts. (B) Oocysts (OO) in the process of excystation. Note the two sporozoites (SP) free of the sporocyst (SC). (C) Transmission electron microscopy of human small intestine showing intracellular stages. ME, merozoite.

Citation: Ortega Y. 2019. Protozoan Parasites, p 667-691. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch25
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Image of Figure 25.5
Figure 25.5

Bright-field photomicrograph of unsporulated (A) and sporulated (B) oocysts.

Citation: Ortega Y. 2019. Protozoan Parasites, p 667-691. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch25
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Image of Figure 25.6
Figure 25.6

Life cycle of . From Dubey and Beattie ( ).

Citation: Ortega Y. 2019. Protozoan Parasites, p 667-691. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch25
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Image of Figure 25.7
Figure 25.7

Transmission electron micrographs of . (A) Sporozoite in parasitophorous vacuole (Pv) of host cell (Hc) at 24 h after inoculation. Am, amylopectin granule; Co, conoid; Mn, microneme; Nu, nucleus of sporozoite; Rh, rhoptry. (B) Final stage of endodyogeny to form two daughter tachyzoites that are still attached to the posterior ends (arrowheads). DG, dense granules; HC, host cell; IT, intravacuolar tubules; M, mitochondrion; MC, microneme; MI, micropore; N, nucleus; RO, rhoptry. From Dubey and Beattie ( ).

Citation: Ortega Y. 2019. Protozoan Parasites, p 667-691. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch25
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Image of Figure 25.8
Figure 25.8

Scanning electron micrograph of trophozoites. One trophozoite shows the dorsal surface and the other shows the ventral surface with sucking disk and flagella.

Citation: Ortega Y. 2019. Protozoan Parasites, p 667-691. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch25
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Image of Figure 25.9
Figure 25.9

Hematoxylin and eosin staining. (A) cyst with two nuclei and a trophozoite (a) and showing two nuclei and the median body visible at one pole (b). (B) cyst showing a large macronucleus and cilia beneath the cyst wall and trophozoite (a) and showing an oval macronucleus (b). (C) trophozoite showing a nucleus and a few red blood cells in the cytoplasm and cyst (a) and showing two of four nuclei and rod-shaped inclusion bodies with rounded ends (b). Courtesy of Lynne S. Garcia.

Citation: Ortega Y. 2019. Protozoan Parasites, p 667-691. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch25
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