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Chapter 3 : Microbiological Criteria and Indicator Microorganisms

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Abstract:

The concepts and principles for the establishment of microbiological criteria were elaborated in the mid-1980s by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods. These concepts have been used to develop recommendations for criteria for foods in international trade or for criteria specific to pathogens, such as , in foods. They have also been the basis of the Codex Alimentarius Commission document “Principles and Guidelines for the Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria Related to Foods,” first issued in 1997 and revised in 2013. This document defines a microbiological criterion as a risk management metric which indicates the acceptability of a food or the performance of either a process or a food safety control system following the outcome of sampling and testing for microorganisms, their toxins and metabolites, or markers associated with pathogenicity or other traits at a specified point of the food chain.

Citation: Gorris L, Cordier J. 2019. Microbiological Criteria and Indicator Microorganisms, p 65-77. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch3
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Figures

Image of Figure 3.1
Figure 3.1

Schematic flow diagram of a food process, including raw materials (RM), a heat treatment, and food contact surfaces in the processing line (PL) as well as the processing environment located after the heat treatment (PE) up to the finished product (FP).

Citation: Gorris L, Cordier J. 2019. Microbiological Criteria and Indicator Microorganisms, p 65-77. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch3
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References

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1. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods . 1986. Microorganisms in Foods 2. Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications, 2nd ed. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada.
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5. Codex Alimentarius Commission . 2013. Principles and guidelines for the establishment and application of microbiological criteria related to foods. CAC/GL 21-1997. Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization, Rome, Italy. Revision of 2013. http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/sh-proxy/en/?lnk=1&url=https%253A%252F%252Fworkspace.fao.org%252Fsites%252Fcodex%252FStandards%252FCAC%2BGL%2B21-1997%252FCXG_021e.pdf. Accessed 13 September 2018.
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29. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods . 2014. Usefulness of testing for Clostridium botulinum in powdered infant formula and dairy-based ingredients for infant formula (revision 1). ICMSF, International Union of Microbiological Societies. http://www.icmsf.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/ICMSF_Infant_Formula_Testing_Revision1-20140117.pdf. Accessed 13 September 2018.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 3.1

Examples of the ICMSF cases approach ( ), with sampling plans and stringency (case) aligned with degree of risk and conditions of use

Citation: Gorris L, Cordier J. 2019. Microbiological Criteria and Indicator Microorganisms, p 65-77. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch3

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