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Chapter 40 : Food Safety Management Systems

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Abstract:

Producing safe food, all the time, must be a foundational goal for any individual or corporation in the business of making food. It is critical to understand the risks associated with food and take actions to mitigate those risks. Food safety management systems (FSMSs) include multiple, interrelated elements to help ensure that risks are mitigated to an acceptable level. Good manufacturing practices and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) programs are key elements of an FSMS, but there are other elements based in policy and culture that are also important. A robust FSMS that is effectively implemented, continuously monitored, verified, and subject to continuous improvement is essential for the success of food manufacturers.

Citation: Stevens K, Hood S. 2019. Food Safety Management Systems, p 1007-1020. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch40
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Figures

Image of Figure 40.1
Figure 40.1

Factors to consider in developing an FSMS.

Citation: Stevens K, Hood S. 2019. Food Safety Management Systems, p 1007-1020. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch40
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Image of Figure 40.2
Figure 40.2

Critical elements of a sanitation procedure.

Citation: Stevens K, Hood S. 2019. Food Safety Management Systems, p 1007-1020. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch40
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Image of Figure 40.3
Figure 40.3

Examples of EMP zones using a single piece of equipment. This picture provides some examples. Surfaces above this conveyor belt and the conveyor belt itself are zone 1. The conduit below the belt, the gear box, equipment support leg, and rail adjacent to the belt are zone 2. The drain and the crack in the floor are zone 3.

Citation: Stevens K, Hood S. 2019. Food Safety Management Systems, p 1007-1020. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch40
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Image of Figure 40.4
Figure 40.4

Hygiene area site selection. Shown are examples of hygienic area designations in three generic process flows. The yellow background indicates an area of high hygiene risk, and the gray background indicates a basic GMP area. (Top) In the cracker (RTE) production process, the cooking step is a validated kill step, so areas prior to the cooker are considered basic GMP areas. After the cooker, but before packaging, the product is exposed and susceptible to contamination from the environment, so this area is considered a high-risk area. After packaging, the product is no longer exposed, so this area is a basic GMP area. (Middle) In a dried-fruit production process, there is no lethality step and the product is RTE. Therefore, the entire line before packaging is a high-risk area. (iii) In a wheat flour (non-RTE) production line, the entire line is a basic GMP area because there is no RTE product. Sampling intensity should be higher in high-risk areas than in basic GMP areas to distribute verification resources in alignment with risk.

Citation: Stevens K, Hood S. 2019. Food Safety Management Systems, p 1007-1020. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch40
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References

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1. International Organization for Standardization. 2005. ISO 22000:2005: food safety management systems—requirements for any organization in the food chain. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland. https://www.iso.org/standard/35466.html
2. Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy SL, Jones JL, Griffin PM . 2011. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis 17 : 7 15[CrossRef].[PubMed]
3. Havelaar AH, Kirk MD, Torgerson PR, Gibb HJ, Hald T, Lake RJ, Praet N, Bellinger DC, de Silva NR, Gargouri N, Speybroeck N, Cawthorne A, Mathers C, Stein C, Angulo FJ, Devleesschauwer B World Health Organization Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group . 2015. World Health Organization global estimates and regional comparisons of the burden of foodborne disease in 2010. PLoS Med 12 : e1001923[CrossRef].[PubMed]
4. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1997. Risk management and food safety - FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 65. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.fao.org/docrep/w4982e/w4982e00.htm
5. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods . 2011. Microorganisms in Food 7. Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management. Springer, New York, NY.
6. Powell DA, Jacob CJ, Chapman BJ . 2011. Enhancing food safety culture to reduce rates of foodborne illness. Food Control 22 : 817 822[CrossRef].
7. Scharff RL, Besser J, Sharp DJ, Jones TF, Peter GS, Hedberg CW . 2016. An economic evaluation of PulseNet: a network for foodborne disease surveillance. Am J Prev Med 50( Suppl 1) : S66 S73[CrossRef].[PubMed]
8. Institute of Food Technologies . 2018: The potential of blockchain technology application in the food system. Institute of Food Technologies, Chicago, IL. http://www.ift.org/Knowledge-Center/Learn-About-Food-Science/Food-Facts/The-Potential-of-Blockchain-Technology-Application.aspx

Tables

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Table 40.1

Summary of vegetable case study

Citation: Stevens K, Hood S. 2019. Food Safety Management Systems, p 1007-1020. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch40
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Table 40.2

Environmental monitoring zones

Citation: Stevens K, Hood S. 2019. Food Safety Management Systems, p 1007-1020. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch40
Generic image for table
Table 40.3

Key elements to consider when designing an EMP

Citation: Stevens K, Hood S. 2019. Food Safety Management Systems, p 1007-1020. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch40
Generic image for table
Table 40.4

Key information to collect for consumer and customer complaints

Citation: Stevens K, Hood S. 2019. Food Safety Management Systems, p 1007-1020. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch40

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