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Chapter 42 : Relevance of Food Microbiology Issues to Current Trends (2008–2018) in Food Production and Imported Foods

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Abstract:

The microbiological safety of food has always been essential to ensuring the public’s well-being; however, over the past decade, many issues have emerged or continue to be of concern. Four of these topics are addressed in this chapter. The application of whole-genome sequencing to enhance the identification and investigation of outbreaks of foodborne illness through its use as a standard tool for “fingerprinting” pathogens has revolutionized surveillance of foodborne-illness outbreaks and source tracking. Implementation of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s recently adopted rules of the Food Safety Modernization Act is another factor that should contribute to the enhanced safety of foods, and a brief discussion of the intricacies of this law is provided, highlighting features that are likely to have the greatest impact. Although the food industry generally has a remarkable record of producing safe foods, it is increasingly challenged by consumers’ demand for “natural” foods that are free of synthetic antimicrobials. In addition, an ever-increasing percentage of foods consumed in the United States and in many developed countries are imported, of which a major portion originate from developing countries whose sanitary practices in production and processing are often inferior to those employed in developed countries. The food safety landscape is not likely to remain static; however, improvements will need to be balanced against competing nutritional, cost, and sustainability priorities.

Citation: Erickson M, Doyle M. 2019. Relevance of Food Microbiology Issues to Current Trends (2008–2018) in Food Production and Imported Foods, p 1049-1071. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch42
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Tables

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Table 42.1

Use of whole-genome sequencing to analyze foodborne-illness outbreaks

Citation: Erickson M, Doyle M. 2019. Relevance of Food Microbiology Issues to Current Trends (2008–2018) in Food Production and Imported Foods, p 1049-1071. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch42
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Table 42.2

Imported food groups that have accounted for the greatest percentage of foodborne outbreaks and illnesses within the United States between 1996 and 2014

Citation: Erickson M, Doyle M. 2019. Relevance of Food Microbiology Issues to Current Trends (2008–2018) in Food Production and Imported Foods, p 1049-1071. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch42
Generic image for table
Table 42.3

Source countries of U.S. shrimp and tilapia in 2018 based on volume

Citation: Erickson M, Doyle M. 2019. Relevance of Food Microbiology Issues to Current Trends (2008–2018) in Food Production and Imported Foods, p 1049-1071. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch42
Generic image for table
Table 42.4

Selected fruit and vegetable commodities and their U.S. per-capita consumption for which a major portion are imported into the U.S.

Citation: Erickson M, Doyle M. 2019. Relevance of Food Microbiology Issues to Current Trends (2008–2018) in Food Production and Imported Foods, p 1049-1071. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch42
Generic image for table
Table 42.5

Top six sources and their percentage of total U.S. imports (based on U.S. dollar value) for selected food groups in 2017

Citation: Erickson M, Doyle M. 2019. Relevance of Food Microbiology Issues to Current Trends (2008–2018) in Food Production and Imported Foods, p 1049-1071. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch42
Generic image for table
Table 42.6

Major source countries of U.S. food imports in 2017 based on U.S. dollar value

Citation: Erickson M, Doyle M. 2019. Relevance of Food Microbiology Issues to Current Trends (2008–2018) in Food Production and Imported Foods, p 1049-1071. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch42
Generic image for table
Table 42.7

Reported instances of microbial contamination of imported foods or food raised or grown in developing countries being documented or being a subject of concern

Citation: Erickson M, Doyle M. 2019. Relevance of Food Microbiology Issues to Current Trends (2008–2018) in Food Production and Imported Foods, p 1049-1071. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch42
Generic image for table
Table 42.8

Major sections and provisions specified in three of the seven rules that were mandated in the FSMA ( )

Citation: Erickson M, Doyle M. 2019. Relevance of Food Microbiology Issues to Current Trends (2008–2018) in Food Production and Imported Foods, p 1049-1071. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch42
Generic image for table
Table 42.9

Costs associated with implementation of on-farm food safety standards within the LGMA or the FSMA produce safety rule

Citation: Erickson M, Doyle M. 2019. Relevance of Food Microbiology Issues to Current Trends (2008–2018) in Food Production and Imported Foods, p 1049-1071. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch42

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