Chapter 6 : Meat and Poultry

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Meat and poultry are important commodities in the United States and worldwide. Given the popularity of these commodities and their high consumption rate, it is critical to understand the sources of contamination and the means to prevent cross-contamination to protect public health. Contamination of meat and poultry by microorganisms occurs naturally as a result of procedures necessary to produce foods of animal origin. In general, most foodborne illnesses and outbreaks are due to undercooking or underprocessing of these products, cross contamination, or improper handling of cooked meat and poultry. As these are highly perishable commodities, particularly fresh meat and poultry, temperature controls are critical to prevent contamination. Given the broad spectrum of variables that can cause foodborne illnesses linked to meat and poultry products, this chapter discusses microbiological issues related to these commodities and their control measures.

Citation: Singh M, Thippareddi H, Wang L, Balamurugan S. 2019. Meat and Poultry, p 125-177. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch6
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Figure 6.1

Unit operations for pork slaughter.

Citation: Singh M, Thippareddi H, Wang L, Balamurugan S. 2019. Meat and Poultry, p 125-177. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.2
Figure 6.2

Unit operations for beef slaughter.

Citation: Singh M, Thippareddi H, Wang L, Balamurugan S. 2019. Meat and Poultry, p 125-177. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.3
Figure 6.3

APCs on beef cattle hides and freshly dehided carcasses. Reprinted from reference .

Citation: Singh M, Thippareddi H, Wang L, Balamurugan S. 2019. Meat and Poultry, p 125-177. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.4
Figure 6.4

APCs on beef carcasses at various locations after dehiding (a), evisceration (b), trimming (c), washing (d), and blast chilling (e) in two beef-processing operations. Reprinted from reference 303.

Citation: Singh M, Thippareddi H, Wang L, Balamurugan S. 2019. Meat and Poultry, p 125-177. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.5
Figure 6.5

Unit operations for primary processing of poultry. IOBW, inside-out bird washer.

Citation: Singh M, Thippareddi H, Wang L, Balamurugan S. 2019. Meat and Poultry, p 125-177. In Doyle M, Diez-Gonzalez F, Hill C (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 5th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819972.ch6
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