1887

Chapter 15 : Sortases, Surface Proteins, and Their Roles in Disease and Vaccine Development

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Sortases, Surface Proteins, and Their Roles in Disease and Vaccine Development, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781683670285/9781683670278_Chap15-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781683670285/9781683670278_Chap15-2.gif

Abstract:

Prior to bacterial genome sequencing and the genetic analysis of pathogenesis, microbiologists identified molecules on microbial surfaces and studied their role in disease processes ( ). The ultimate goal of this research was the identification of molecular formulations inciting antibody responses in vaccine recipients that prevented disease yet would otherwise not cause harm ( ). Oswald Avery’s discovery of the pneumococcus capsule and the demonstration that capsular polysaccharide vaccine protects against pneumococcal pneumonia represent an important paradigm ( ). Another was Rebecca Lancefield’s characterization of M protein as the determinant of type-specific immunity against , the causative agent of streptococcal pharyngitis and rheumatic fever ( ). Lancefield and Sjöquist required proteases or peptidoglycan (murein) hydrolases, but not membrane detergents, to solubilize surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria ( ). The underlying reason for this biochemical phenomenon is that surface proteins are covalently linked to peptidoglycan at their C-terminal ends ( ).

Citation: Schneewind O, Missiakas D. 2019. Sortases, Surface Proteins, and Their Roles in Disease and Vaccine Development, p 173-188. In Sandkvist M, Cascales E, Christie P (ed), Protein Secretion in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PSIB-0004-2018
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Sortase-mediated anchoring to the cell wall envelope of using SpA as a model substrate. Drawing to illustrate the primary structure of the SpA precursor with its N-terminal signal peptide and signal peptidase cleavage site, the five immunoglobulin binding domains (IgBDs), region X (Xr) LysM domain, and C-terminal LPXTG motif sorting signal with cleavage site for sortase A. Cell wall SpA is linked to peptidoglycan via an amide bond between the carboxyl group of the C-terminal threonine and the amino group of the pentaglycine cross bridge. Released SpA is liberated from the cell wall envelope via the action of several murein hydrolases. Drawing to illustrate secretion of SpA precursor, sortase-mediated cleavage of SpA precursor and acyl enzyme formation, resolution of the acyl enzyme by lipid II to generate SpA linked to lipid II, incorporation of SpA into the cell wall via the transpeptidation and transglycosylation reaction, and release of SpA from the cell wall envelope by murein hydrolases. Released SpA bears the overall structure -Ala–-iGln–-Lys(SpA-LPET-Gly)–-AlaGly.

Citation: Schneewind O, Missiakas D. 2019. Sortases, Surface Proteins, and Their Roles in Disease and Vaccine Development, p 173-188. In Sandkvist M, Cascales E, Christie P (ed), Protein Secretion in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PSIB-0004-2018
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Biological functions of staphylococcal protein A (SpA). and its antibiotic-resistant isolates (MRSA) harbor SpA in the cell wall envelope or released into the extracellular milieu (released SpA). Cell wall SpA binds Fcγ of human and animal IgG (green segment within blue IgG) and blocks the effector functions of antibodies, thereby preventing opsonophagocytic killing (OPK) of MRSA by immune cells through interference with complement (CR1) and Fcγ receptors (FcγRs). Released SpA cross-links V3-clonal B cell receptors (V3-BCR on the surface of B cells), triggering B cell proliferation and secretion of V3-clonal IgM and IgG (pink segments within blue IgG) without antigen specificity for . This B cell superantigen activity (BCSA) of SpA produces irrelevant V3-clonal IgG and prevents the establishment of protective immunity against . Drawing to illustrate the primary structure of human IgG with variable (V and V) and conserved (C, C1, C2, and C3) light (L) and heavy (H) chains, their antigen-binding paratope (Ag), V3, and Fcγ domains. SpA binding sites at V3 heavy chains and Fcγ are in pink and green, respectively.

Citation: Schneewind O, Missiakas D. 2019. Sortases, Surface Proteins, and Their Roles in Disease and Vaccine Development, p 173-188. In Sandkvist M, Cascales E, Christie P (ed), Protein Secretion in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PSIB-0004-2018
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781683670285.chap15
1. Lancefield RC . 1928. The antigenic complex of Streptococcus hemolyticus. I. Demonstration of a type-specific substance in extracts of Streptococcus hemolyticus. J Exp Med 47 : 91 103.[CrossRef][PubMed]
2. Lancefield RC . 1962. Current knowledge of type-specific M antigens of group A streptococci. J Immunol 89 : 307 313.[PubMed]
3. Avery OT . 1915. A further study on the biologic classification of pneumococci. J Exp Med 22 : 804 819.[CrossRef][PubMed]
4. MacLeod CM,, Hodges RG,, Heidelberger M,, Bernhard WG . 1945. Prevention of pneumococcal pneumonia by immunization with specific capsular polysaccharides. J Exp Med 82 : 445 465.[CrossRef]
5. Sjöquist J,, Meloun B,, Hjelm H . 1972. Protein A isolated from Staphylococcus aureus after digestion with lysostaphin. Eur J Biochem 29 : 572 578.[CrossRef][PubMed]
6. Fischetti VA . 1989. Streptococcal M protein: molecular design and biological behavior. Clin Microbiol Rev 2 : 285 314.[CrossRef][PubMed]
7. Schneewind O,, Fowler A,, Faull KF . 1995. Structure of the cell wall anchor of surface proteins in Staphylococcus aureus. Science 268 : 103 106.[CrossRef][PubMed]
8. Marraffini LA,, Dedent AC,, Schneewind O . 2006. Sortases and the art of anchoring proteins to the envelopes of gram-positive bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 70 : 192 221.[CrossRef][PubMed]
9. Musser JM,, Shelburne SA III . 2009. A decade of molecular pathogenomic analysis of group A Streptococcus. J Clin Invest 119 : 2455 2463.[CrossRef][PubMed]
10. Schneewind O,, Model P,, Fischetti VA . 1992. Sorting of protein A to the staphylococcal cell wall. Cell 70 : 267 281.[CrossRef]
11. Mazmanian SK,, Liu G,, Ton-That H,, Schneewind O . 1999. Staphylococcus aureus sortase, an enzyme that anchors surface proteins to the cell wall. Science 285 : 760 763.[CrossRef][PubMed]
12. Ton-That H,, Liu G,, Mazmanian SK,, Faull KF,, Schneewind O . 1999. Purification and characterization of sortase, the transpeptidase that cleaves surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus at the LPXTG motif. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96 : 12424 12429.[CrossRef][PubMed]
13. Perry AM,, Ton-That H,, Mazmanian SK,, Schneewind O . 2002. Anchoring of surface proteins to the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus. III. Lipid II is an in vivo peptidoglycan substrate for sortase-catalyzed surface protein anchoring. J Biol Chem 277 : 16241 16248.[CrossRef][PubMed]
14. Ton-That H,, Mazmanian SK,, Faull KF,, Schneewind O . 2000. Anchoring of surface proteins to the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus. Sortase catalyzed in vitro transpeptidation reaction using LPXTG peptide and NH(2)-Gly(3) substrates. J Biol Chem 275 : 9876 9881.[CrossRef][PubMed]
15. Ton-That H,, Labischinski H,, Berger-Bächi B,, Schneewind O . 1998. Anchor structure of staphylococcal surface proteins. III. Role of the FemA, FemB, and FemX factors in anchoring surface proteins to the bacterial cell wall. J Biol Chem 273 : 29143 29149.[CrossRef]
16. Ton-That H,, Schneewind O . 1999. Anchor structure of staphylococcal surface proteins. IV. Inhibitors of the cell wall sorting reaction. J Biol Chem 274 : 24316 24320.[CrossRef]
17. Ton-That H,, Faull KF,, Schneewind O . 1997. Anchor structure of staphylococcal surface proteins. A branched peptide that links the carboxyl terminus of proteins to the cell wall. J Biol Chem 272 : 22285 22292.[CrossRef]
18. Navarre WW,, Ton-That H,, Faull KF,, Schneewind O . 1998. Anchor structure of staphylococcal surface proteins. II. COOH-terminal structure of muramidase and amidase-solubilized surface protein. J Biol Chem 273 : 29135 29142.[CrossRef][PubMed]
19. Mazmanian SK,, Liu G,, Jensen ER,, Lenoy E,, Schneewind O . 2000. Staphylococcus aureus sortase mutants defective in the display of surface proteins and in the pathogenesis of animal infections. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97 : 5510 5515.[CrossRef][PubMed]
20. Dhar G,, Faull KF,, Schneewind O . 2000. Anchor structure of cell wall surface proteins in Listeria monocytogenes. Biochemistry 39 : 3725 3733.[CrossRef][PubMed]
21. Bierne H,, Mazmanian SK,, Trost M,, Pucciarelli MG,, Liu G,, Dehoux P,, Jänsch L,, Garcia-del Portillo F,, Schneewind O,, Cossart P, European Listeria Genome Consortium . 2002. Inactivation of the srtA gene in Listeria monocytogenes inhibits anchoring of surface proteins and affects virulence. Mol Microbiol 43 : 869 881.[CrossRef][PubMed]
22. Gaspar AH,, Marraffini LA,, Glass EM,, Debord KL,, Ton-That H,, Schneewind O . 2005. Bacillus anthracis sortase A (SrtA) anchors LPXTG motif-containing surface proteins to the cell wall envelope. J Bacteriol 187 : 4646 4655.[CrossRef][PubMed]
23. Mazmanian SK,, Ton-That H,, Schneewind O . 2001. Sortase-catalysed anchoring of surface proteins to the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol 40 : 1049 1057.[CrossRef][PubMed]
24. Baba T,, Bae T,, Schneewind O,, Takeuchi F,, Hiramatsu K . 2008. Genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman and comparative analysis of staphylococcal genomes: polymorphism and evolution of two major pathogenicity islands. J Bacteriol 190 : 300 310.[CrossRef][PubMed]
25. Kuroda M,, Ohta T,, Uchiyama I,, Baba T,, Yuzawa H,, Kobayashi I,, Cui L,, Oguchi A,, Aoki K,, Nagai Y,, Lian J,, Ito T,, Kanamori M,, Matsumaru H,, Maruyama A,, Murakami H,, Hosoyama A,, Mizutani-Ui Y,, Takahashi NK,, Sawano T,, Inoue R,, Kaito C,, Sekimizu K,, Hirakawa H,, Kuhara S,, Goto S,, Yabuzaki J,, Kanehisa M,, Yamashita A,, Oshima K,, Furuya K,, Yoshino C,, Shiba T,, Hattori M,, Ogasawara N,, Hayashi H,, Hiramatsu K . 2001. Whole genome sequencing of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet 357 : 1225 1240.[CrossRef]
26. McCarthy AJ,, Lindsay JA . 2010. Genetic variation in Staphylococcus aureus surface and immune evasion genes is lineage associated: implications for vaccine design and host-pathogen interactions. BMC Microbiol 10 : 173.[CrossRef][PubMed]
27. Schneewind O,, Mihaylova-Petkov D,, Model P . 1993. Cell wall sorting signals in surface proteins of gram-positive bacteria. EMBO J 12 : 4803 4811.[CrossRef][PubMed]
28. Mazmanian SK,, Ton-That H,, Su K,, Schneewind O . 2002. An iron-regulated sortase anchors a class of surface protein during Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99 : 2293 2298.[CrossRef][PubMed]
29. Patti JM,, Allen BL,, McGavin MJ,, Höök M . 1994. MSCRAMM-mediated adherence of microorganisms to host tissues. Annu Rev Microbiol 48 : 585 617.[CrossRef][PubMed]
30. Foster TJ . 2016. The remarkably multifunctional fibronectin binding proteins of Staphylococcus aureus. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 35 : 1923 1931.[CrossRef][PubMed]
31. Foster TJ,, Geoghegan JA,, Ganesh VK,, Höök M . 2014. Adhesion, invasion and evasion: the many functions of the surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus. Nat Rev Microbiol 12 : 49 62.[CrossRef][PubMed]
32. Thomer L,, Becker S,, Emolo C,, Quach A,, Kim HK,, Rauch S,, Anderson M,, Leblanc JF,, Schneewind O,, Faull KF,, Missiakas D . 2014. N-Acetylglucosaminylation of serine-aspartate repeat proteins promotes Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection. J Biol Chem 289 : 3478 3486.[CrossRef][PubMed]
33. Bleiziffer I,, Eikmeier J,, Pohlentz G,, McAulay K,, Xia G,, Hussain M,, Peschel A,, Foster S,, Peters G,, Heilmann C . 2017. The plasmin-sensitive protein Pls in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a glycoprotein. PLoS Pathog 13 : e1006110.[CrossRef][PubMed]
34. Siboo IR,, Chambers HF,, Sullam PM . 2005. Role of SraP, a serine-rich surface protein of Staphylococcus aureus, in binding to human platelets. Infect Immun 73 : 2273 2280.[CrossRef][PubMed]
35. Mazmanian SK,, Skaar EP,, Gaspar AH,, Humayun M,, Gornicki P,, Jelenska J,, Joachmiak A,, Missiakas DM,, Schneewind O . 2003. Passage of heme-iron across the envelope of Staphylococcus aureus. Science 299 : 906 909.[CrossRef][PubMed]
36. Dryla A,, Gelbmann D,, von Gabain A,, Nagy E . 2003. Identification of a novel iron regulated staphylococcal surface protein with haptoglobin-haemoglobin binding activity. Mol Microbiol 49 : 37 53.[CrossRef][PubMed]
37. Skaar EP,, Humayun M,, Bae T,, DeBord KL,, Schneewind O . 2004. Iron-source preference of Staphylococcus aureus infections. Science 305 : 1626 1628.[CrossRef][PubMed]
38. Pishchany G,, Sheldon JR,, Dickson CF,, Alam MT,, Read TD,, Gell DA,, Heinrichs DE,, Skaar EP . 2014. IsdB-dependent hemoglobin binding is required for acquisition of heme by Staphylococcus aureus. J Infect Dis 209 : 1764 1772.[CrossRef][PubMed]
39. Choby JE,, Skaar EP . 2016. Heme synthesis and acquisition in bacterial pathogens. J Mol Biol 428 : 3408 3428.[CrossRef][PubMed]
40. Sæderup KL,, Stødkilde K,, Graversen JH,, Dickson CF,, Etzerodt A,, Hansen SW,, Fago A,, Gell D,, Andersen CB,, Moestrup SK . 2016. The Staphylococcus aureus protein IsdH inhibits host hemoglobin scavenging to promote heme acquisition by the pathogen. J Biol Chem 291 : 23989 23998.[CrossRef][PubMed]
41. Skaar EP,, Gaspar AH,, Schneewind O . 2004. IsdG and IsdI, heme-degrading enzymes in the cytoplasm of Staphylococcus aureus. J Biol Chem 279 : 436 443.[CrossRef][PubMed]
42. Reniere ML,, Ukpabi GN,, Harry SR,, Stec DF,, Krull R,, Wright DW,, Bachmann BO,, Murphy ME,, Skaar EP . 2010. The IsdG-family of haem oxygenases degrades haem to a novel chromophore. Mol Microbiol 75 : 1529 1538.[CrossRef][PubMed]
43. Marraffini LA,, Schneewind O . 2005. Anchor structure of staphylococcal surface proteins. V. Anchor structure of the sortase B substrate IsdC. J Biol Chem 280 : 16263 16271.[CrossRef][PubMed]
44. Maresso AW,, Schneewind O . 2006. Iron acquisition and transport in Staphylococcus aureus. Biometals 19 : 193 203.[CrossRef][PubMed]
45. Kiser KB,, Cantey-Kiser JM,, Lee JC . 1999. Development and characterization of a Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization model in mice. Infect Immun 67 : 5001 5006.[PubMed]
46. Sun Y,, Emolo C,, Holtfreter S,, Wiles S,, Kreiswirth B,, Missiakas D,, Schneewind O . 2018. Staphylococcal protein A contributes to persistent colonization of mice with Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 200 : e00735-17.[CrossRef][PubMed]
47. Cheng AG,, Kim HK,, Burts ML,, Krausz T,, Schneewind O,, Missiakas DM . 2009. Genetic requirements for Staphylococcus aureus abscess formation and persistence in host tissues. FASEB J 23 : 3393 3404.[CrossRef][PubMed]
48. McAdow M,, Kim HK,, Dedent AC,, Hendrickx APA,, Schneewind O,, Missiakas DM . 2011. Preventing Staphylococcus aureus sepsis through the inhibition of its agglutination in blood. PLoS Pathog 7 : e1002307.[CrossRef][PubMed]
49. Kim HK,, Falugi F,, Thomer L,, Missiakas DM,, Schneewind O . 2015. Protein A suppresses immune responses during Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection in guinea pigs. mBio 6 : e02369-14.[CrossRef][PubMed]
50. Bubeck Wardenburg J,, Patel RJ,, Schneewind O . 2007. Surface proteins and exotoxins are required for the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Infect Immun 75 : 1040 1044.[CrossRef][PubMed]
51. Bubeck Wardenburg J,, Schneewind O . 2008. Vaccine protection against Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. J Exp Med 205 : 287 294.[CrossRef]
52. Kennedy AD,, Bubeck Wardenburg J,, Gardner DJ,, Long D,, Whitney AR,, Braughton KR,, Schneewind O,, DeLeo FR . 2010. Targeting of alpha-hemolysin by active or passive immunization decreases severity of USA300 skin infection in a mouse model. J Infect Dis 202 : 1050 1058.[CrossRef]
53. Jonsson IM,, Mazmanian SK,, Schneewind O,, Bremell T,, Tarkowski A . 2003. The role of Staphylococcus aureus sortase A and sortase B in murine arthritis. Microbes Infect 5 : 775 780.[CrossRef]
54. Corrigan RM,, Miajlovic H,, Foster TJ . 2009. Surface proteins that promote adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to human desquamated nasal epithelial cells. BMC Microbiol 9 : 22.[CrossRef]
55. Schaffer AC,, Solinga RM,, Cocchiaro J,, Portoles M,, Kiser KB,, Risley A,, Randall SM,, Valtulina V,, Speziale P,, Walsh E,, Foster T,, Lee JC . 2006. Immunization with Staphylococcus aureus clumping factor B, a major determinant in nasal carriage, reduces nasal colonization in a murine model. Infect Immun 74 : 2145 2153.[CrossRef]
56. Misawa Y,, Kelley KA,, Wang X,, Wang L,, Park WB,, Birtel J,, Saslowsky D,, Lee JC . 2015. Staphylococcus aureus colonization of the mouse gastrointestinal tract is modulated by wall teichoic acid, capsule, and surface proteins. PLoS Pathog 11 : e1005061.[CrossRef]
57. Clarke SR,, Brummell KJ,, Horsburgh MJ,, McDowell PW,, Mohamad SA,, Stapleton MR,, Acevedo J,, Read RC,, Day NP,, Peacock SJ,, Mond JJ,, Kokai-Kun JF,, Foster SJ . 2006. Identification of in vivo-expressed antigens of Staphylococcus aureus and their use in vaccinations for protection against nasal carriage. J Infect Dis 193 : 1098 1108.[CrossRef]
58. Wertheim HF,, Walsh E,, Choudhurry R,, Melles DC,, Boelens HA,, Miajlovic H,, Verbrugh HA,, Foster T,, van Belkum A . 2008. Key role for clumping factor B in Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization of humans. PLoS Med 5 : e17.[CrossRef]
59. Forsgren A . 1970. Significance of protein A production by staphylococci. Infect Immun 2 : 672 673.
60. Votintseva AA,, Fung R,, Miller RR,, Knox K,, Godwin H,, Wyllie DH,, Bowden R,, Crook DW,, Walker AS . 2014. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus protein A ( spa) mutants in the community and hospitals in Oxfordshire. BMC Microbiol 14 : 63.[CrossRef]
61. DeDent AC,, McAdow M,, Schneewind O . 2007. Distribution of protein A on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 189 : 4473 4484.[CrossRef]
62. DeDent A,, Bae T,, Missiakas DM,, Schneewind O . 2008. Signal peptides direct surface proteins to two distinct envelope locations of Staphylococcus aureus. EMBO J 27 : 2656 2668.[CrossRef]
63. Yu W,, Missiakas D,, Schneewind O . 2018. Septal secretion of protein A in Staphylococcus aureus requires SecA and lipoteichoic acid synthesis. eLife 7 : e34092.[CrossRef]
64. Frankel MB,, Hendrickx AP,, Missiakas DM,, Schneewind O . 2011. LytN, a murein hydrolase in the cross-wall compartment of Staphylococcus aureus, is involved in proper bacterial growth and envelope assembly. J Biol Chem 286 : 32593 32605.[CrossRef]
65. Frankel MB,, Schneewind O . 2012. Determinants of murein hydrolase targeting to cross-wall of Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan. J Biol Chem 287 : 10460 10471.[CrossRef]
66. Becker S,, Frankel MB,, Schneewind O,, Missiakas D . 2014. Release of protein A from the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111 : 1574 1579.[CrossRef]
67. Kim HK,, Falugi F,, Missiakas DM,, Schneewind O . 2016. Peptidoglycan-linked protein A promotes T cell-dependent antibody expansion during Staphylococcus aureus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113 : 5718 5723.[CrossRef]
68. Pauli NT,, Kim HK,, Falugi F,, Huang M,, Dulac J,, Henry Dunand C,, Zheng NY,, Kaur K,, Andrews SF,, Huang Y,, DeDent A,, Frank KM,, Charnot-Katsikas A,, Schneewind O,, Wilson PC . 2014. Staphylococcus aureus infection induces protein A-mediated immune evasion in humans. J Exp Med 211 : 2331 2339.[CrossRef]
69. Falugi F,, Kim HK,, Missiakas DM,, Schneewind O . 2013. Role of protein A in the evasion of host adaptive immune responses by Staphylococcus aureus. mBio 4 : e00575-13.[CrossRef]
70. Forsgren A,, Sjöquist J . 1966. “Protein A” from S. aureus. I. Pseudo-immune reaction with human gamma-globulin. J Immunol 97 : 822 827.
71. Forsgren A . 1968. Protein A from Staphylococcus aureus. VI. Reaction with subunits from guinea pig γ-1- and γ-2-globulin. J Immunol 100 : 927 930.
72. Sasso EH,, Silverman GJ,, Mannik M . 1989. Human IgM molecules that bind staphylococcal protein A contain VHIII H chains. J Immunol 142 : 2778 2783.
73. Kim HK,, Cheng AG,, Kim H-Y,, Missiakas DM,, Schneewind O . 2010. Nontoxigenic protein A vaccine for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice. J Exp Med 207 : 1863 1870.[CrossRef]
74. Verkaik NJ,, Lebon A,, de Vogel CP,, Hooijkaas H,, Verbrugh HA,, Jaddoe VW,, Hofman A,, Moll HA,, van Belkum A,, van Wamel WJ . 2010. Induction of antibodies by Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in young children. Clin Microbiol Infect 16 : 1312 1317.[CrossRef]
75. Swierstra J,, Debets S,, de Vogel C,, Lemmens-den Toom N,, Verkaik N,, Ramdani-Bouguessa N,, Jonkman MF,, van Dijl JM,, Fahal A,, van Belkum A,, van Wamel W . 2015. IgG4 subclass-specific responses to Staphylococcus aureus antigens shed new light on host-pathogen interaction. Infect Immun 83 : 492 501.[CrossRef]
76. Holtfreter S,, Jursa-Kulesza J,, Masiuk H,, Verkaik NJ,, de Vogel C,, Kolata J,, Nowosiad M,, Steil L,, van Wamel W,, van Belkum A,, Völker U,, Giedrys-Kalemba S,, Bröker BM . 2011. Antibody responses in furunculosis patients vaccinated with autologous formalin-killed Staphylococcus aureus. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 30 : 707 717.[CrossRef]
77. Kluytmans J,, van Belkum A,, Verbrugh H . 1997. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology, underlying mechanisms, and associated risks. Clin Microbiol Rev 10 : 505 520.[CrossRef]
78. Weinstein HJ . 1959. The relation between the nasal-staphylococcal-carrier state and the incidence of postoperative complications. N Engl J Med 260 : 1303 1308.[CrossRef]
79. Wertheim HF,, Melles DC,, Vos MC,, van Leeuwen W,, van Belkum A,, Verbrugh HA,, Nouwen JL . 2005. The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus infections. Lancet Infect Dis 5 : 751 762.[CrossRef]
80. Forsgren A,, Quie PG . 1974. Effects of staphylococcal protein A on heat labile opsonins. J Immunol 112 : 1177 1180.
81. Adams RL,, Bird RJ . 2009. Review article: coagulation cascade and therapeutics update: relevance to nephrology. Part 1: overview of coagulation, thrombophilias and history of anticoagulants. Nephrology (Carlton) 14 : 462 470.[CrossRef]
82. Doolittle RF . 2003. Structural basis of the fibrinogen-fibrin transformation: contributions from X-ray crystallography. Blood Rev 17 : 33 41.[CrossRef]
83. Ware S,, Donahue JP,, Hawiger J,, Anderson WF . 1999. Structure of the fibrinogen gamma-chain integrin binding and factor XIIIa cross-linking sites obtained through carrier protein driven crystallization. Protein Sci 8 : 2663 2671.[CrossRef]
84. Levi M,, Keller TT,, van Gorp E,, ten Cate H . 2003. Infection and inflammation and the coagulation system. Cardiovasc Res 60 : 26 39.[CrossRef]
85. Much H . 1908. Über eine Vorstufe des Fibrinfermentes in Kulturen von Staphylokokkus aureus. Biochem Z 14 : 143 155.
86. Cheng AG,, McAdow M,, Kim HK,, Bae T,, Missiakas DM,, Schneewind O . 2010. Contribution of coagulases towards Staphylococcus aureus disease and protective immunity. PLoS Pathog 6 : e1001036.[CrossRef][PubMed]
87. Thomer L,, Schneewind O,, Missiakas D . 2016. Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections. Annu Rev Pathol 11 : 343 364.[CrossRef][PubMed]
88. O’Connell DP,, Nanavaty T,, McDevitt D,, Gurusiddappa S,, Höök M,, Foster TJ . 1998. The fibrinogen-binding MSCRAMM (clumping factor) of Staphylococcus aureus has a Ca2+-dependent inhibitory site. J Biol Chem 273 : 6821 6829.[CrossRef][PubMed]
89. Strong DD,, Laudano AP,, Hawiger J,, Doolittle RF . 1982. Isolation, characterization, and synthesis of peptides from human fibrinogen that block the staphylococcal clumping reaction and construction of a synthetic clumping particle. Biochemistry 21 : 1414 1420.[CrossRef][PubMed]
90. Ganesh VK,, Rivera JJ,, Smeds E,, Ko Y-P,, Bowden MG,, Wann ER,, Gurusiddappa S,, Fitzgerald JR,, Höök M . 2008. A structural model of the Staphylococcus aureus ClfA-fibrinogen interaction opens new avenues for the design of anti-staphylococcal therapeutics. PLoS Pathog 4 : e1000226.[CrossRef]
91. Ponnuraj K,, Bowden MG,, Davis S,, Gurusiddappa S,, Moore D,, Choe D,, Xu Y,, Höök M,, Narayana SV . 2003. A “dock, lock, and latch” structural model for a staphylococcal adhesin binding to fibrinogen. Cell 115 : 217 228.[CrossRef]
92. Bowden MG,, Heuck AP,, Ponnuraj K,, Kolosova E,, Choe D,, Gurusiddappa S,, Narayana SV,, Johnson AE,, Höök M . 2008. Evidence for the “dock, lock, and latch” ligand binding mechanism of the staphylococcal microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) SdrG. J Biol Chem 283 : 638 647.[CrossRef]
93. Flick MJ,, Du X,, Prasad JM,, Raghu H,, Palumbo JS,, Smeds E,, Höök M,, Degen JL . 2013. Genetic elimination of the binding motif on fibrinogen for the S. aureus virulence factor ClfA improves host survival in septicemia. Blood 121 : 1783 1794.[CrossRef]
94. O’Brien L,, Kerrigan SW,, Kaw G,, Hogan M,, Penadés J,, Litt D,, Fitzgerald DJ,, Foster TJ,, Cox D . 2002. Multiple mechanisms for the activation of human platelet aggregation by Staphylococcus aureus: roles for the clumping factors ClfA and ClfB, the serine-aspartate repeat protein SdrE and protein A. Mol Microbiol 44 : 1033 1044.[CrossRef]
95. Loughman A,, Fitzgerald JR,, Brennan MP,, Higgins J,, Downer R,, Cox D,, Foster TJ . 2005. Roles for fibrinogen, immunoglobulin and complement in platelet activation promoted by Staphylococcus aureus clumping factor A. Mol Microbiol 57 : 804 818.[CrossRef]
96. Ní Eidhin D,, Perkins S,, Francois P,, Vaudaux P,, Höök M,, Foster TJ . 1998. Clumping factor B (ClfB), a new surface-located fibrinogen-binding adhesin of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol 30 : 245 257.[CrossRef]
97. Walsh EJ,, Miajlovic H,, Gorkun OV,, Foster TJ . 2008. Identification of the Staphylococcus aureus MSCRAMM clumping factor B (ClfB) binding site in the alphaC-domain of human fibrinogen. Microbiology 154 : 550 558.[CrossRef]
98. Perkins S,, Walsh EJ,, Deivanayagam CC,, Narayana SV,, Foster TJ,, Höök M . 2001. Structural organization of the fibrinogen-binding region of the clumping factor B MSCRAMM of Staphylococcus aureus. J Biol Chem 276 : 44721 44728.[CrossRef]
99. Haim M,, Trost A,, Maier CJ,, Achatz G,, Feichtner S,, Hintner H,, Bauer JW,, Onder K . 2010. Cytokeratin 8 interacts with clumping factor B: a new possible virulence factor target. Microbiology 156 : 3710 3721.[CrossRef]
100. Walsh EJ,, O’Brien LM,, Liang X,, Höök M,, Foster TJ . 2004. Clumping factor B, a fibrinogen-binding MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) adhesin of Staphylococcus aureus, also binds to the tail region of type I cytokeratin 10. J Biol Chem 279 : 50691 50699.[CrossRef]
101. O’Brien LM,, Walsh EJ,, Massey RC,, Peacock SJ,, Foster TJ . 2002. Staphylococcus aureus clumping factor B (ClfB) promotes adherence to human type I cytokeratin 10: implications for nasal colonization. Cell Microbiol 4 : 759 770.[CrossRef]
102. Mulcahy ME,, Geoghegan JA,, Monk IR,, O’Keeffe KM,, Walsh EJ,, Foster TJ,, McLoughlin RM . 2012. Nasal colonisation by Staphylococcus aureus depends upon clumping factor B binding to the squamous epithelial cell envelope protein loricrin. PLoS Pathog 8 : e1003092.[CrossRef]
103. Ganesh VK,, Barbu EM,, Deivanayagam CC,, Le B,, Anderson AS,, Matsuka YV,, Lin SL,, Foster TJ,, Narayana SV,, Höök M . 2011. Structural and biochemical characterization of Staphylococcus aureus clumping factor B/ligand interactions. J Biol Chem 286 : 25963 25972.[CrossRef]
104. Cheng AG,, DeDent AC,, Schneewind O,, Missiakas D . 2011. A play in four acts: Staphylococcus aureus abscess formation. Trends Microbiol 19 : 225 232.[CrossRef]
105. Berends ET,, Horswill AR,, Haste NM,, Monestier M,, Nizet V,, von Köckritz-Blickwede M . 2010. Nuclease expression by Staphylococcus aureus facilitates escape from neutrophil extracellular traps. J Innate Immun 2 : 576 586.[CrossRef]
106. Thammavongsa V,, Missiakas DM,, Schneewind O . 2013. Staphylococcus aureus conversion of neutrophil extracellular traps into deoxyadenosine promotes immune cell death. Science 342 : 863 866.[CrossRef]
107. Winstel V,, Missiakas D,, Schneewind O . 2018. Staphylococcus aureus targets the purine salvage pathway to kill phagocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 115 : 6846 6851.[CrossRef]
108. Thammavongsa V,, Kern JW,, Missiakas DM,, Schneewind O . 2009. Staphylococcus aureus synthesizes adenosine to escape host immune responses. J Exp Med 206 : 2417 2427.[CrossRef]
109. Thammavongsa V,, Schneewind O,, Missiakas DM . 2011. Enzymatic properties of Staphylococcus aureus adenosine synthase (AdsA). BMC Biochem 12 : 56.[CrossRef]
110. Josefsson E,, Higgins J,, Foster TJ,, Tarkowski A . 2008. Fibrinogen binding sites P336 and Y338 of clumping factor A are crucial for Staphylococcus aureus virulence. PLoS One 3 : e2206.[CrossRef][PubMed]
111. Domanski PJ,, Patel PR,, Bayer AS,, Zhang L,, Hall AE,, Syribeys PJ,, Gorovits EL,, Bryant D,, Vernachio JH,, Hutchins JT,, Patti JM . 2005. Characterization of a humanized monoclonal antibody recognizing clumping factor A expressed by Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 73 : 5229 5232.[CrossRef][PubMed]
112. Ganesh VK,, Liang X,, Geoghegan JA,, Cohen ALV,, Venugopalan N,, Foster TJ,, Höök M . 2016. Lessons from the crystal structure of the S. aureus surface protein clumping factor A in complex with tefibazumab, an inhibiting monoclonal antibody. EBioMedicine 13 : 328 338.[CrossRef][PubMed]
113. Hall AE,, Domanski PJ,, Patel PR,, Vernachio JH,, Syribeys PJ,, Gorovits EL,, Johnson MA,, Ross JM,, Hutchins JT,, Patti JM . 2003. Characterization of a protective monoclonal antibody recognizing Staphylococcus aureus MSCRAMM protein clumping factor A. Infect Immun 71 : 6864 6870.[CrossRef][PubMed]
114. Weems JJ Jr,, Steinberg JP,, Filler S,, Baddley JW,, Corey GR,, Sampathkumar P,, Winston L,, John JF,, Kubin CJ,, Talwani R,, Moore T,, Patti JM,, Hetherington S,, Texter M,, Wenzel E,, Kelley VA,, Fowler VG Jr . 2006. Phase II, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study comparing the safety and pharmacokinetics of tefibazumab to placebo for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50 : 2751 2755.[CrossRef][PubMed]
115. Tkaczyk C,, Hamilton MM,, Sadowska A,, Shi Y,, Chang CS,, Chowdhury P,, Buonapane R,, Xiao X,, Warrener P,, Mediavilla J,, Kreiswirth B,, Suzich J,, Stover CK,, Sellman BR . 2016. Targeting alpha toxin and ClfA with a multimechanistic monoclonal-antibody-based approach for prophylaxis of serious Staphylococcus aureus disease. mBio 7 : e00528-16.[CrossRef][PubMed]
116. Tkaczyk C,, Hua L,, Varkey R,, Shi Y,, Dettinger L,, Woods R,, Barnes A,, MacGill RS,, Wilson S,, Chowdhury P,, Stover CK,, Sellman BR . 2012. Identification of anti-alpha toxin monoclonal antibodies that reduce the severity of Staphylococcus aureus dermonecrosis and exhibit a correlation between affinity and potency. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19 : 377 385.[CrossRef][PubMed]
117. Tkaczyk C,, Kasturirangan S,, Minola A,, Jones-Nelson O,, Gunter V,, Shi YY,, Rosenthal K,, Aleti V,, Semenova E,, Warrener P,, Tabor D,, Stover CK,, Corti D,, Rainey G,, Sellman BR . 2017. Multimechanistic monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeting Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin and clumping factor A: activity and efficacy comparisons of a MAb combination and an engineered bispecific antibody approach. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 61 : e00629-17.[CrossRef][PubMed]
118. Creech CB,, Frenck RWJ Jr,, Sheldon EA,, Seiden DJ,, Kankam MK,, Zito ET,, Girgenti D,, Severs JM,, Immermann FW,, McNeil LK,, Cooper D,, Jansen KU,, Gruber W,, Eiden J,, Anderson AS,, Baber J . 2017. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a single dose 4-antigen or 3-antigen Staphylococcus aureus vaccine in healthy older adults: results of a randomised trial. Vaccine 35 : 385 394.[CrossRef][PubMed]
119. Scully IL,, Liberator PA,, Jansen KU,, Anderson AS . 2014. Covering all the bases: preclinical development of an effective Staphylococcus aureus vaccine. Front Immunol 5 : 109.[CrossRef][PubMed]
120. Stranger-Jones YK,, Bae T,, Schneewind O . 2006. Vaccine assembly from surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103 : 16942 16947.[CrossRef][PubMed]
121. Kuklin NA,, Clark DJ,, Secore S,, Cook J,, Cope LD,, McNeely T,, Noble L,, Brown MJ,, Zorman JK,, Wang XM,, Pancari G,, Fan H,, Isett K,, Burgess B,, Bryan J,, Brownlow M,, George H,, Meinz M,, Liddell ME,, Kelly R,, Schultz L,, Montgomery D,, Onishi J,, Losada M,, Martin M,, Ebert T,, Tan CY,, Schofield TL,, Nagy E,, Meineke A,, Joyce JG,, Kurtz MB,, Caulfield MJ,, Jansen KU,, McClements W,, Anderson AS . 2006. A novel Staphylococcus aureus vaccine: iron surface determinant B induces rapid antibody responses in rhesus macaques and specific increased survival in a murine S. aureus sepsis model. Infect Immun 74 : 2215 2223.[CrossRef][PubMed]
122. Kim HK,, DeDent A,, Cheng AG,, McAdow M,, Bagnoli F,, Missiakas DM,, Schneewind O . 2010. IsdA and IsdB antibodies protect mice against Staphylococcus aureus abscess formation and lethal challenge. Vaccine 28 : 6382 6392.[CrossRef][PubMed]
123. Brown M,, Kowalski R,, Zorman J,, Wang XM,, Towne V,, Zhao Q,, Secore S,, Finnefrock AC,, Ebert T,, Pancari G,, Isett K,, Zhang Y,, Anderson AS,, Montgomery D,, Cope L,, McNeely T . 2009. Selection and characterization of murine monoclonal antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus iron-regulated surface determinant B with functional activity in vitro and in vivo. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16 : 1095 1104.[CrossRef][PubMed]
124. Fowler VG,, Allen KB,, Moreira ED,, Moustafa M,, Isgro F,, Boucher HW,, Corey GR,, Carmeli Y,, Betts R,, Hartzel JS,, Chan IS,, McNeely TB,, Kartsonis NA,, Guris D,, Onorato MT,, Smugar SS,, DiNubile MJ,, Sobanjo-ter Meulen A . 2013. Effect of an investigational vaccine for preventing Staphylococcus aureus infections after cardiothoracic surgery: a randomized trial. JAMA 309 : 1368 1378.[CrossRef][PubMed]
125. Kim HK,, Emolo C,, DeDent AC,, Falugi F,, Missiakas DM,, Schneewind O . 2012. Protein A-specific monoclonal antibodies and prevention of Staphylococcus aureus disease in mice. Infect Immun 80 : 3460 3470.[CrossRef][PubMed]
126. Thammavongsa V,, Rauch S,, Kim HK,, Missiakas DM,, Schneewind O . 2015. Protein A-neutralizing monoclonal antibody protects neonatal mice against Staphylococcus aureus. Vaccine 33 : 523 526.[CrossRef][PubMed]
127. Ton-That H,, Mazmanian SK,, Alksne L,, Schneewind O . 2002. Anchoring of surface proteins to the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus. Cysteine 184 and histidine 120 of sortase form a thiolate-imidazolium ion pair for catalysis. J Biol Chem 277 : 7447 7452.[CrossRef][PubMed]
128. Maresso AW,, Wu R,, Kern JW,, Zhang R,, Janik D,, Missiakas DM,, Duban ME,, Joachimiak A,, Schneewind O . 2007. Activation of inhibitors by sortase triggers irreversible modification of the active site. J Biol Chem 282 : 23129 23139.[CrossRef][PubMed]
129. Maresso AW,, Schneewind O . 2008. Sortase as a target of anti-infective therapy. Pharmacol Rev 60 : 128 141.[CrossRef][PubMed]
130. Zhang J,, Liu H,, Zhu K,, Gong S,, Dramsi S,, Wang YT,, Li J,, Chen F,, Zhang R,, Zhou L,, Lan L,, Jiang H,, Schneewind O,, Luo C,, Yang CG . 2014. Antiinfective therapy with a small molecule inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus sortase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111 : 13517 13522.[CrossRef][PubMed]
131. Oh KB,, Nam KW,, Ahn H,, Shin J,, Kim S,, Mar W . 2010. Therapeutic effect of (Z)-3-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) acrylonitrile (DMMA) against Staphylococcus aureus infection in a murine model. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 396 : 440 444.[CrossRef][PubMed]
132. Pallen MJ,, Lam AC,, Antonio M,, Dunbar K . 2001. An embarrassment of sortases—a richness of substrates? Trends Microbiol 9 : 97 102.[CrossRef]
133. Hendrickx AP,, Budzik JM,, Oh SY,, Schneewind O . 2011. Architects at the bacterial surface—sortases and the assembly of pili with isopeptide bonds. Nat Rev Microbiol 9 : 166 176.[CrossRef][PubMed]
134. Jacobitz AW,, Kattke MD,, Wereszczynski J,, Clubb RT . 2017. Sortase transpeptidases: structural biology and catalytic mechanism. Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 109 : 223 264.[CrossRef][PubMed]
135. Ton-That H,, Schneewind O . 2003. Assembly of pili on the surface of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Mol Microbiol 50 : 1429 1438.[CrossRef][PubMed]
136. Mandlik A,, Swierczynski A,, Das A,, Ton-That H . 2007. Corynebacterium diphtheriae employs specific minor pilins to target human pharyngeal epithelial cells. Mol Microbiol 64 : 111 124.[CrossRef][PubMed]
137. Budzik JM,, Marraffini LA,, Souda P,, Whitelegge JP,, Faull KF,, Schneewind O . 2008. Amide bonds assemble pili on the surface of bacilli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105 : 10215 10220.[CrossRef][PubMed]
138. Budzik JM,, Oh SY,, Schneewind O . 2008. Cell wall anchor structure of BcpA pili in Bacillus anthracis. J Biol Chem 283 : 36676 36686.[CrossRef][PubMed]
139. Budzik JM,, Oh SY,, Schneewind O . 2009. Sortase D forms the covalent bond that links BcpB to the tip of Bacillus cereus pili. J Biol Chem 284 : 12989 12997.[CrossRef][PubMed]
140. Ton-That H,, Marraffini LA,, Schneewind O . 2004. Sortases and pilin elements involved in pilus assembly of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Mol Microbiol 53 : 251 261.[CrossRef][PubMed]
141. Swaminathan A,, Mandlik A,, Swierczynski A,, Gaspar A,, Das A,, Ton-That H . 2007. Housekeeping sortase facilitates the cell wall anchoring of pilus polymers in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Mol Microbiol 66 : 961 974.[CrossRef][PubMed]
142. Mandlik A,, Das A,, Ton-That H . 2008. The molecular switch that activates the cell wall anchoring step of pilus assembly in gram-positive bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105 : 14147 14152.[CrossRef][PubMed]
143. Chang C,, Amer BR,, Osipiuk J,, McConnell SA,, Huang IH,, Hsieh V,, Fu J,, Nguyen HH,, Muroski J,, Flores E,, Ogorzalek Loo RR,, Loo JA,, Putkey JA,, Joachimiak A,, Das A,, Clubb RT,, Ton-That H . 2018. In vitro reconstitution of sortase-catalyzed pilus polymerization reveals structural elements involved in pilin cross-linking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 115 : E5477 E5486.[CrossRef][PubMed]
144. McDevitt D,, Francois P,, Vaudaux P,, Foster TJ . 1994. Molecular characterization of the clumping factor (fibrinogen receptor) of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol 11 : 237 248.[CrossRef][PubMed]
145. Hair PS,, Ward MD,, Semmes OJ,, Foster TJ,, Cunnion KM . 2008. Staphylococcus aureus clumping factor A binds to complement regulator factor I and increases factor I cleavage of C3b. J Infect Dis 198 : 125 133.[CrossRef][PubMed]
146. Zong Y,, Xu Y,, Liang X,, Keene DR,, Höök A,, Gurusiddappa S,, Höök M,, Narayana SV . 2005. A ‘Collagen Hug’ model for Staphylococcus aureus CNA binding to collagen. EMBO J 24 : 4224 4236.[CrossRef][PubMed]
147. Kang M,, Ko YP,, Liang X,, Ross CL,, Liu Q,, Murray BE,, Höök M . 2013. Collagen-binding microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecule (MSCRAMM) of Gram-positive bacteria inhibit complement activation via the classical pathway. J Biol Chem 288 : 20520 20531.[CrossRef][PubMed]
148. Komatsuzawa H,, Sugai M,, Ohta K,, Fujiwara T,, Nakashima S,, Suzuki J,, Lee CY,, Suginaka H . 1997. Cloning and characterization of the fmt gene which affects the methicillin resistance level and autolysis in the presence of Triton X-100 in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41 : 2355 2361.[CrossRef][PubMed]
149. Kuusela P,, Hildén P,, Savolainen K,, Vuento M,, Lyytikäinen O,, Vuopio-Varkila J . 1994. Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains not identified by slide agglutination tests. J Clin Microbiol 32 : 143 147.[PubMed]
150. Kuusela P,, Saksela O . 1990. Binding and activation of plasminogen at the surface of Staphylococcus aureus. Increase in affinity after conversion to the Lys form of the ligand. Eur J Biochem 193 : 759 765.[CrossRef][PubMed]
151. Schroeder K,, Jularic M,, Horsburgh SM,, Hirschhausen N,, Neumann C,, Bertling A,, Schulte A,, Foster S,, Kehrel BE,, Peters G,, Heilmann C . 2009. Molecular characterization of a novel Staphylococcus aureus surface protein (SasC) involved in cell aggregation and biofilm accumulation. PLoS One 4 : e7567.[CrossRef]
152. Barbu EM,, Ganesh VK,, Gurusiddappa S,, Mackenzie RC,, Foster TJ,, Sudhof TC,, Höök M . 2010. β-Neurexin is a ligand for the Staphylococcus aureus MSCRAMM SdrC. PLoS Pathog 6 : e1000726.[CrossRef]
153. Feuillie C,, Formosa-Dague C,, Hays LM,, Vervaeck O,, Derclaye S,, Brennan MP,, Foster TJ,, Geoghegan JA,, Dufrêne YF . 2017. Molecular interactions and inhibition of the staphylococcal biofilm-forming protein SdrC. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114 : 3738 3743.[CrossRef]
154. Askarian F,, Ajayi C,, Hanssen AM,, van Sorge NM,, Pettersen I,, Diep DB,, Sollid JU,, Johannessen M . 2016. The interaction between Staphylococcus aureus SdrD and desmoglein 1 is important for adhesion to host cells. Sci Rep 6 : 22134.[CrossRef]
155. Zhang Y,, Wu M,, Hang T,, Wang C,, Yang Y,, Pan W,, Zang J,, Zhang M,, Zhang X . 2017. Staphylococcus aureus SdrE captures complement factor H’s C-terminus via a novel ‘close, dock, lock and latch’ mechanism for complement evasion. Biochem J 474 : 1619 1631.[CrossRef]
156. Uhlén M,, Guss B,, Nilsson B,, Gatenbeck S,, Philipson L,, Lindberg M . 1984. Complete sequence of the staphylococcal gene encoding protein A. A gene evolved through multiple duplications. J Biol Chem 259 : 1695 1702.
157. Graille M,, Stura EA,, Corper AL,, Sutton BJ,, Taussig MJ,, Charbonnier JB,, Silverman GJ . 2000. Crystal structure of a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain complexed with the Fab fragment of a human IgM antibody: structural basis for recognition of B-cell receptors and superantigen activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97 : 5399 5404.[CrossRef]
158. Kukita K,, Kawada-Matsuo M,, Oho T,, Nagatomo M,, Oogai Y,, Hashimoto M,, Suda Y,, Tanaka T,, Komatsuzawa H . 2013. Staphylococcus aureus SasA is responsible for binding to the salivary agglutinin gp340, derived from human saliva. Infect Immun 81 : 1870 1879.[CrossRef]

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

cell wall-anchored surface proteins

Citation: Schneewind O, Missiakas D. 2019. Sortases, Surface Proteins, and Their Roles in Disease and Vaccine Development, p 173-188. In Sandkvist M, Cascales E, Christie P (ed), Protein Secretion in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PSIB-0004-2018

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error