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EcoSal Plus

image of EcoSal Plus
eISSN: 2324-6200

The cover image, “Salmonella typhi on Hep2,” was provided courtesy of David Goulding, Genome Research Limited (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/).

EcoSal Plus Contents

Domain 1

Historical Perspectives

Editor: James B. Kaper
Escherich and
and the French School of Molecular Biology
and the Emergence of Molecular Biology
The Legacy of 20th Century Phage Research
and 2000: the View From Here
A Brief History of

Domain 2 Cell Architecture and Growth

Editor: James M. Slauch
Fimbriae: Classification and Biochemistry
Regulation of Fimbrial Expression
Structure and Assembly of Capsules
Outer Membrane Vesicles
The Nucleoid: an Overview
Modulation of Chemical Composition and Other Parameters of the Cell at Different Exponential Growth Rates
Function and Biogenesis of Lipopolysaccharides
Disulfide Bond Formation in the Periplasm of
Chromosomal Organization and Regulation of Genetic Function in Integrates the DNA Analog and Digital Information
Peptidoglycan: Structure, Synthesis, and Regulation

Domain 3


Editor: Tyrrell Conway

Introduction and Perspectives

Energy Generation/Redox Control

The Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiratory Chain of and : Enzymes and Energetics
ATP Synthesis by Oxidative Phosphorylation
NADH as Donor
Respiration of Nitrate and Nitrite
Succinate as Donor; Fumarate as Acceptor
Oxygen as Acceptor
- and -Oxide Reductases

Solute and Ion Transport

Solute and Ion Transport: Outer Membrane Pores and Receptors
Bacterial Ion Channels
Ammonia Transport
Binding Protein-Dependent Uptake of Maltose into Cells via an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter
Copper Homeostasis in and Other
Magnesium Transport and Magnesium Homeostasis
Transition Metal Homeostasis

Pathways to Central Metabolism: Catabolism

Hexose/Pentose and Hexitol/Pentitol Metabolism
Catabolism of Hexuronides, Hexuronates, Aldonates, and Aldarates
Glycerol and Methylglyoxal Metabolism
Two-Carbon Compounds and Fatty Acids as Carbon Sources
C-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth
Molecular Basis for Bacterial Growth on Citrate or Malonate
Catabolism of Amino Acids and Related Compounds

Central Metabolism

Glycolysis and Flux Control
Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle and Glyoxylate Bypass
Fermentative Pyruvate and Acetyl-Coenzyme A Metabolism
Anaerobic Formate and Hydrogen Metabolism


Amino Acid Metabolism and Fluxes
Selenocysteine Lyase
Selenophosphate Synthetase
Regulation of Serine, Glycine, and One-Carbon Biosynthesis
Biosynthesis of Glutamate, Aspartate, Asparagine, -Alanine, and -Alanine
Biosynthesis of Proline
Biosynthesis and Regulation of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids†
Regulation of Glutamine Synthetase Activity
Biosynthesis of the Aromatic Amino Acids
Biosynthesis of Histidine
Biosynthesis of Arginine and Polyamines
Biosynthesis of Cysteine
Nucleotides, Nucleosides, and Nucleobases
Glycogen: Biosynthesis and Regulation
Biosynthesis of Membrane Lipids

Coenzymes, Cofactors and Prosthetic Groups

Biosynthesis of Riboflavin
Biosynthesis of Menaquinone (Vitamin K) and Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q)
Biosynthesis of Pantothenic Acid and Coenzyme A
Biotin and Lipoic Acid: Synthesis, Attachment, and Regulation
Folate Biosynthesis, Reduction, and Polyglutamylation and the Interconversion of Folate Derivatives
Biosynthesis of Thiamin Pyrophosphate
Biosynthesis and Use of Cobalamin (B)
Biogenesis and Homeostasis of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Cofactor
Biosynthesis of Hemes
Cytochrome Biogenesis
Biosynthesis and Insertion of the Molybdenum Cofactor
From Iron and Cysteine to Iron-Sulfur Clusters: the Biogenesis Protein Machineries
Knowns and Unknowns of Vitamin B Metabolism in

Domain 4

Synthesis and Processing of Macromolecules

Editor: Susan T. Lovett


How We Got to Where We Are: the Ribosome in the 21st Century
An Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Ribosome
Assembly of the 30S Ribosomal Subunit
Structural Basis for the Decoding Mechanism
Modification of the Ribosome and the Translational Machinery during Reduced Growth Due to Environmental Stress
Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms, with an Emphasis on Those Related to the Ribosome
Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases in the Bacterial World
Modified Nucleosides of Ribosomal RNA
Transfer RNA Modification: Presence, Synthesis, and Function
Translation Initiation
The Twin-Arginine Pathway for Protein Secretion
Lipoproteins and Their Trafficking to the Outer Membrane
Outer Membrane Protein Insertion by the β-barrel Assembly Machine
Architecture, Function, and Substrates of the Type II Secretion System
Type V Secretion in Gram-Negative Bacteria
The Type VI Secretion System in and Related Species
The Sec System: Protein Export in
The Mosaic Type IV Secretion Systems
Type I Protein Secretion—Deceptively Simple yet with a Wide Range of Mechanistic Variability across the Family
Targeting and Insertion of Membrane Proteins
The TAM: A Translocation and Assembly Module of the β-Barrel Assembly Machinery in Bacterial Outer Membranes
Curli Biogenesis: Bacterial Amyloid Assembly by the Type VIII Secretion Pathway
The Injectisome, a Complex Nanomachine for Protein Injection into Mammalian Cells
Small Proteome


Initiation of DNA Replication
Replisome Dynamics during Chromosome Duplication
DNA Methylation
The DNA Exonucleases of
DNA Helicases
DNA Topoisomerases
Translesion DNA Synthesis
Stress-Induced Mutagenesis
Direct DNA Lesion Reversal and Excision Repair in
DNA Mismatch Repair
Homologous Recombination—Experimental Systems, Analysis, and Significance
Homologous Recombination—Enzymes and Pathways


Promoter Escape by RNA Polymerase
Nus Factors of
Exoribonucleases and Endoribonucleases
Messenger RNA Decay
An Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Catalytic Core Enzyme of RNA Polymerase
Trans-Acting Small RNAs and Their Effects on Gene Expression in and
Inhibition of RNA Polymerase by Rifampicin and Rifamycin-Like Molecules

Complex Lipids and Carbohydrates

Peptidoglycan Recycling
Undecaprenyl Phosphate Synthesis

Domain 5

Responding to the Environment

Editor: James M. Slauch

The Cold Shock Response
The SOS Regulatory Network
Oxidative Stress
Osmotic Stress
Envelope Stress Responses
Stationary-Phase Gene Regulation in  §
Osmoregulated Periplasmic Glucans
Periplasmic Chaperones and Prolyl Isomerases
Control of the Regulon in
EnvZ/OmpR Two-Component Signaling: An Archetype System That Can Function Noncanonically

Domain 6

Evolution and Genomics

Editors: David A. Rasko and Edward G. Dudley

The Influence of Ecological Factors on the Distribution and the Genetic Structure of
Evolution and Ecology of
The Ecology and Evolution of Microbial Defense Systems in
The Origin of Mutants under Selection: Interactions of Mutation, Growth, and Selection
The "Cryptic"
Role of Plasmids in the Ecology and Evolution of “High-Risk” Extraintestinal Pathogenic Clones

Domain 7

Genetics and Genetic Tools

Editor: James M. Slauch


λ Recombination and Recombineering


The Cytology of Bacterial Conjugation
Spread and Persistence of Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance Genes: A Ride on the F Plasmid Conjugation Module
Plasmid Localization and Partition in
Mechanisms of Theta Plasmid Replication in Enterobacteria and Implications for Adaptation to Its Host

[Genetic Manipulations: Methods, Tools, Genetic Manipulations, Methods, Tools]

The Legacy of Genetic Analysis Advances Contemporary Research with K-12 and serovar Typhimurium LT2
Mechanisms of Type I-E and I-F CRISPR-Cas Systems in
Prokaryotic Organelles: Bacterial Microcompartments in and

Domain 8


Editor: Michael S. Donnenberg

Adherence and Colonization

Animal Enterotoxigenic
Adhesins of Diffusely Adherent and Enteroaggregative
Adhesins of Enterohemorrhagic
Adhesins of Enteropathogenic
Type 1 Fimbriae, Curli, and Antigen 43: Adhesion, Colonization, and Biofilm Formation
Pili Assembled by the Chaperone/Usher Pathway in and

Toxins and Secretion Systems

The Hemolysin
Autotransporter Proteins
Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factors: Rho-Activating Toxins from
Heat-Labile Enterotoxins
Shiga Toxins: Potent Poisons, Pathogenicity Determinants, and Pharmacological Agents
The Enterobacterial Genotoxins: Cytolethal Distending Toxin and Colibactin

Regulation of Virulence

Virulence Gene Regulation in
Virulence Gene Regulation in
Regulation of Pathogenesis by Alternative Sigma Factor N

Interactions with the Host

Live Attenuated Human Vaccine Candidates: Tracking the Pathogen in Natural Infection and Stimulation of Host Immunity
NLRs: Nucleotide-Binding Domain and Leucine-Rich-Repeat-Containing Proteins
and Enteropathogenic Interactions with Host Cells: Signaling Pathways
Cytokines in Salmonellosis
Nitric Oxide in and Infections
Modulation of Iron Availability at the Host-Pathogen Interface in Phagocytic Cells
Adaptive Immune Responses during Infection
Mucosal Immune Responses to and Infections
as an Inducer of Autoimmunity
Vaccines against Infections Caused by , , and Pathogenic
Cytokines and Sepsis
Intracellular Voyeurism: Examining the Modulation of Host Cell Activities by
Imaging Techniques for the Study of and Infections

Intestinal Infections


Extraintestinal Infections

Human Meningitis-Associated
Molecular Epidemiology of Extraintestinal Pathogenic
Epidemiology and Pathogenesis in Food-Producing Animals
Invasive Nontyphoidal Disease in Africa
Pathogenesis of Infection

Domain 9 Life in Communities and the Environment

Editor: Seth Walk

The Life of Commensal in the Mammalian Intestine
Colonization of Abiotic Surfaces
Cell-to-Cell Signaling in and
Similarities and Differences between Colicin and Filamentous Phage Uptake by Bacterial Cells
Residency in the Gut of Healthy Human Adults

Domain 10 Bioinformatics and Systems Biology

Editor: Peter D. Karp

Reconstruction and Use of Microbial Metabolic Networks: the Core Metabolic Model as an Educational Guide
The EcoCyc Database
Systems Metabolic Engineering of

Domain 11 Antibiotic Mechanisms and Resistance

Editor: Karen Bush
Aminoglycoside Revival: Review of a Historically Important Class of Antimicrobials Undergoing Rejuvenation
Promises and Challenges of the Type Three Secretion System Injectisome as an Antivirulence Target
Therapeutic Approaches Targeting the Assembly and Function of Chaperone-Usher Pili
Ancient Antibiotics, Ancient Resistance


Editors: Deborah Hinton and Sankar L. Adhya
Bacteriophage Infections of Biofilms of Health Care-Associated Pathogens:

Volumes & Issues

About EcoSal Plus

EcoSal Plus is the authoritative online review journal that publishes an ever-growing body of expert reviews covering virtually all aspects of E. coli, Salmonella, and other members of the Enterobacterales and their use as model microbes for biological explorations. This journal is intended primarily for the research community as a comprehensive and continuously updated archive of the entire corpus of knowledge about the enteric bacterial cell. The journal features a unique content structure, with articles grouped both under the classic "Volume, Issue" journal format as well as into curated subject domains with only the most up-to-date articles available in each subject; serving as a go-to constantly evolving reference. Articles contain links to E. coli genes on the EcoCyc database site and are available as downloadable PDF files. Images and tables are downloadable to PowerPoint files. For subscription information, see the Home page. 

"EcoSal Plus is a robust research tool that allows users to read text with clarity, closely examine graphic and pictorial information, download material for printing or visual presentation, request permission for quoting or reprinting items, and receive tips for further tracking information."
–Frederick C. Neidhardt (1931–2016), Founding Editor of EcoSal Plus, F. G. Novy Distinguished University Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School

The Editors of EcoSal Plus encourage you to read an editorial related to ASM’s efforts in diversity, equality, and inclusion written by the members of the ASM Journals Committee: https://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.EDT-0001-2020

Editor in Chief: Susan Lovett, PhD
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