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EcoSal Plus

Domain 8:


Mucosal Immune Responses to and Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
  • Authors: Odilia L. C. Wijburg1, and Richard A. Strugnell2
  • Editor: Michael S. Donnenberg3
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia; 2: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia; 3: University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
  • Received 22 November 2005 Accepted 01 March 2006 Published 06 June 2006
  • Address correspondence to Odilia L. C. Wijburg [email protected]
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  • Abstract:

    The best-characterized mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), and also the most relevant for this review, is the gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The review reviews our understanding of the importance of mucosal immune responses in resisting infections caused by and spp. It focuses on the major human infections and discusses whether antigen-specific mucosal immune responses are important for resistance against primary infection or reinfection by pathogenic . It analyzes human data on mucosal immunity against , a growing body of data of mucosal responses in food production animals and other natural hosts of , and more recent experimental studies in mice carrying defined deletions in genes encoding specific immunological effectors, to show that there may be considerable conservation of the effective host mucosal immune response against this pathogen. The species contains a number of serovars that include pathogens of both humans and animals; these bacteria are frequently host specific and may cause different diseases in different hosts. Ingestion of various serovars, such as Typhimurium, results in localized infections of the small intestine leading to gastroenteritis in humans, whereas ingestion of serovar Typhi results in systemic infection and enteric fever. Serovar Typhi infects only humans, and the review discusses the mucosal immune responses against serovar Typhi, focusing on the responses in humans and in the mouse typhoid fever model.

  • Citation: Wijburg O, Strugnell R. 2006. Mucosal Immune Responses to and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2006; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.12


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The best-characterized mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), and also the most relevant for this review, is the gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The review reviews our understanding of the importance of mucosal immune responses in resisting infections caused by and spp. It focuses on the major human infections and discusses whether antigen-specific mucosal immune responses are important for resistance against primary infection or reinfection by pathogenic . It analyzes human data on mucosal immunity against , a growing body of data of mucosal responses in food production animals and other natural hosts of , and more recent experimental studies in mice carrying defined deletions in genes encoding specific immunological effectors, to show that there may be considerable conservation of the effective host mucosal immune response against this pathogen. The species contains a number of serovars that include pathogens of both humans and animals; these bacteria are frequently host specific and may cause different diseases in different hosts. Ingestion of various serovars, such as Typhimurium, results in localized infections of the small intestine leading to gastroenteritis in humans, whereas ingestion of serovar Typhi results in systemic infection and enteric fever. Serovar Typhi infects only humans, and the review discusses the mucosal immune responses against serovar Typhi, focusing on the responses in humans and in the mouse typhoid fever model.

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Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Dimeric IgA produced by plasma cells in the lamina propria binds to the pIgR receptor on the basolateral side of epithelial cells (). Following endocytosis and transcytosis of the IgA/pIgR complex to the luminal side of the epithelial cell (), the receptor is cleaved, releasing SIgA (). SIgA may protect the mucosal surfaces by several mechanisms: inhibition of adhesion and/or invasion by pathogens (), neutralization of pathogens intracellularly following fusion of endosomes (), and elimination of antigens from the lamina propria ().

O. Wijburg and R. Strugnell.

Citation: Wijburg O, Strugnell R. 2006. Mucosal Immune Responses to and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2006; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.12
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

The mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract can be divided into inductive sites (Peyer’s patches [PP], mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN], and isolated lymphoid follicles [ILF]) and effector sites (lamina propria). Among the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) overlying the PP are the M cells, which are responsible for the uptake of antigens. In the subepithelial dome (SED), macrophages (MΦ), several subpopulations of dendritic cells (DC) and T and B lymphocytes can be found. The dendritic cells may take up antigens passed on by M cells, epithelial cells, or sampled directly from the intestinal lumen, and may present these antigens to lymphocytes in the follicles and/or the mesenteric lymph nodes. Activated lymphocytes migrate via the lymphatics and the bloodstream back to the lamina propria, where activated B cells will further mature into antibody-secreting plasma cells (P). In addition, dendritic cells, macrophages, eosinophils (E), and T lymphocytes can be found in the lamina propria, and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are found between the columnar epithelial cells.

O. Wijburg and R. Strugnell.

Citation: Wijburg O, Strugnell R. 2006. Mucosal Immune Responses to and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2006; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.12
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

The absorptive epithelium of the intestine is polarized whereby the cells differentiate apical and basolateral surfaces. The apical surface is covered by a brush border of microvilli that increase the surface area of the cell available for nutrient uptake. Three basic pathogenic processes lead to pathology in infections: (i) apical adherence by bacteria and release of exotoxins (mediated by type II secretion), (ii) attaching/effacing lesions mediated by type III secretion system effectors, and (iii) bacterial invasion into the epithelium.

O. Wijburg and R. Strugnell.

Citation: Wijburg O, Strugnell R. 2006. Mucosal Immune Responses to and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2006; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.12
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Groups of five C57BL/6 (?) and pIgR (○ mice were orally immunized with 10 μg of CT on days 0, 10, and 20. On day 27, serum and fecal samples were collected and analyzed for CT-specific IgA (A), IgG (B), and IgM (C) antibodies. The detection limit of the ELISA is indicated by the dotted line. The response of individual mice as well as the mean response from each group (horizontal bar) is presented. (D) Level of protection after oral challenge of immunized mice with 30 μg of CT on day 27 after immunization. In these experiments, mice were euthanized and weighed 6 h after challenge. The entire intestine was removed and also weighed. The degree of protection was determined by the level of fluid accumulation in the intestine, reflected by the weight of the intestine including contents. A ratio was assigned to express the level of protection, calculated as follows: ratio = intestine weight / (total body weight − intestine weight). The black line indicates the intestinal ratio in normal mice. Presented are means ± SD. *, < 0.05; **, < 0.001. These experiments were performed by Dr. T. Uren (Ph.D. thesis, The University of Melbourne, 2002).

T. K. Uren, Ph.D. thesis, The University of Melbourne, 2002.

Citation: Wijburg O, Strugnell R. 2006. Mucosal Immune Responses to and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2006; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.12
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Generic image for table
Table 1

pathotypes and typical lesions

Citation: Wijburg O, Strugnell R. 2006. Mucosal Immune Responses to and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2006; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.12
Generic image for table
Table 2

Ligands for toll-like receptor ligands in

Citation: Wijburg O, Strugnell R. 2006. Mucosal Immune Responses to and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2006; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.12
Generic image for table
Table 3

Efficacy of a live oral vaccine (Ty21a) against typhoid fever

Citation: Wijburg O, Strugnell R. 2006. Mucosal Immune Responses to and Infections, EcoSal Plus 2006; doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.8.8.12

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