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Artificial Urine for Teaching Urinalysis Concepts and Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection in the Medical Microbiology Laboratory

    Authors: Latifa B. Khan1, Hannah M. Read1,2, Stephen R. Ritchie1,*, Thomas Proft1,2,*
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    Affiliations: 1: Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand; 2: Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
    AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION
    Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. September 2017 vol. 18 no. 2 doi:10.1128/jmbe.v18i2.1325
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    Abstract:

    Dipstick urinalysis is an informative, quick, cost-effective and non-invasive diagnostic tool that is useful in clinical practice for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney diseases, and diabetes. We used dipstick urinalysis as a hands-on microbiology laboratory exercise to reinforce student learning about UTIs with a particular focus on cystitis, which is a common bacterial infection. To avoid exposure to potentially contaminated human urine samples, we prepared artificial urine using easily acquired and affordable ingredients, which allowed less-experienced students to perform urinalysis without the risk of exposure to pathogenic organisms and ensured reliable availability of the urine samples. This practical class taught medical students how to use urinalysis data in conjunction with medical history to diagnose diseases from urine samples and to determine a treatment plan for clinical scenarios.

Key Concept Ranking

Infection and Immunity
0.80741906
Urinary Tract Infections
0.7166788
White Blood Cells
0.55599874
Sodium Nitrite
0.47319734
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
0.44479904
Chemicals
0.43560606
0.80741906

References & Citations

1. Ellis G 2004 Handling human samples is worth the risk Scientist 18 7
2. Sharp RH, Smailes DL 1989 A simulation of the blood type test Am Biol Teacher 51 232 233 10.2307/4448909 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4448909
3. Basso PJ, Tazinafo LF, Silva MF, Rocha MJ 2014 An alternative to the use of animals to teach diabetes mellitus Adv Physiol Educ 38 235 238 10.1152/advan.00051.2014 25179613 4154263 http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/advan.00051.2014
4. Brooks T, Keevil CW 1997 A simple artificial urine for the growth of urinary pathogens Lett Appl Microbiol 24 203 206 10.1046/j.1472-765X.1997.00378.x 9080700 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1472-765X.1997.00378.x
5. Chutipongtanate S, Thongboonkerd V 2010 Systematic comparisons of artificial urine formulas for in vitro cellular study Anal Biochem 402 110 112 10.1016/j.ab.2010.03.031 20347669 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2010.03.031
6. Shmaefsky BR 1990 Artificial urine for laboratory testing Am Biol Teacher 52 170 172 10.2307/4449071 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4449071
7. Shmaefsky BR 1995 Artificial urine for laboratory testing: revisited Am Biol Teacher 57 428 430 10.2307/4450032 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4450032
8. Dumonceaux M, Gamez M 2016 Rediscovering urine chemistry—and understanding its limitations Med Lab Observer https://www.mlo-online.com/rediscovering-urine-chemistry%E2%80%94and-understanding-its-limitations
9. Andriole VT 1987 Urinary tract infections: recent developments J Infect Dis 156 865 869 10.1093/infdis/156.6.865 3316414 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/156.6.865
10. Mambatta AK, Jayarajan J, Rashme VL, Harini S, Menon S, Kuppusamy J 2015 Reliability of dipstick assay in predicting urinary tract infection J Fam Med Prim Care 4 265 268 10.4103/2249-4863.154672 http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.154672
11. Schwalfenberg GK 2012 The alkaline diet: is there evidence that an alkaline pH diet benefits health? J Environ Public Health 2012 727630

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/content/journal/jmbe/10.1128/jmbe.v18i2.1325
2017-09-01
2019-10-21

Abstract:

Dipstick urinalysis is an informative, quick, cost-effective and non-invasive diagnostic tool that is useful in clinical practice for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney diseases, and diabetes. We used dipstick urinalysis as a hands-on microbiology laboratory exercise to reinforce student learning about UTIs with a particular focus on cystitis, which is a common bacterial infection. To avoid exposure to potentially contaminated human urine samples, we prepared artificial urine using easily acquired and affordable ingredients, which allowed less-experienced students to perform urinalysis without the risk of exposure to pathogenic organisms and ensured reliable availability of the urine samples. This practical class taught medical students how to use urinalysis data in conjunction with medical history to diagnose diseases from urine samples and to determine a treatment plan for clinical scenarios.

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1

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FIGURE 1

Student materials: 10 mL each of Case A and Case B artificial urine samples, a timer, COMBUR-7 TEST strips, paper towel, and a discard jar for used strips.

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. September 2017 vol. 18 no. 2 doi:10.1128/jmbe.v18i2.1325
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Image of FIGURE 2

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FIGURE 2

COMBUR-7 TEST strips dipped in artificial urine samples for Case A and Case B.

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. September 2017 vol. 18 no. 2 doi:10.1128/jmbe.v18i2.1325
Download as Powerpoint

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