1887

Investigating Undergraduates’ Perceptions of Science in Courses Taught Using the CREATE Strategy

    Authors: Sally G. Hoskins1,*, Alan J. Gottesman1
    VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Biology Department, City College of the City University of New York, New York, NY 10031
    AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION
    • Received 07 August 2017 Accepted 18 November 2017 Published 16 February 2018
    • ©2018 Author(s). Published by the American Society for Microbiology
    • [open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ and https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode), which grants the public the nonexclusive right to copy, distribute, or display the published work.

    • Supplemental materials available at http://asmscience.org/jmbe
    • *Corresponding author. Mailing address: Biology Department, City College of the City University of New York 160 Convent Ave, New York NY 10031. Phone: 212-650-8213. Fax: 212-650-8585. E-mail: [email protected].
    Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. February 2018 vol. 19 no. 1 doi:10.1128/jmbe.v19i1.1440
MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
  • HTML
    72.63 Kb
  • PDF
    395.39 Kb
  • XML
    97.92 Kb

    Abstract:

    Many science educators agree that 21 century students need to develop mature scientific thinking skills. Unsurprisingly, students’ and experts’ perceptions about the nature of scientific knowledge differ. Moreover, students’ naïve and entrenched epistemologies can preclude their development toward “thinking like scientists.” Novel teaching approaches that guide students toward more mature perceptions may be needed to support their development of scientific thinking skills. To address such issues, physics educators developed the Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey (CLASS), subsequently adapted for chemistry and biology. These surveys are “designed to compare novice and expert perceptions about the content and structure of a specific discipline; the source of knowledge about that discipline, including connection of the discipline to the real world; and problem-solving approaches” (Semsar , CBE Life Sci. Educ. 10:268–278; p 269). We used CLASS-Bio to track students’ perceptions of science in separate first-year and upper-level CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, Think of the next Experiment) electives, hypothesizing that perceptions would become significantly more expert-like across a semester. Both first-year and upper-level cohorts made significant expert-like shifts. Students also made significant critical thinking gains in CREATE courses. Our findings of more mature, expert-like perceptions of science post-course contrast with those of previous studies, where students’ thinking became significantly less expert-like across a term of introductory instruction and changed little in upper-level biology electives. Augmenting traditional biology curricula with CREATE courses could be an economical way to help undergraduates develop more mature views of science.

References & Citations

1. Semsar K, Knight JK, Birol G, Smith MK 2011 The Colorado learning attitudes about science survey (CLASS) for use in biology CBE Life Sci Educ 10 268 278 10.1187/cbe.10-10-0133 21885823 3164566 http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.10-10-0133
2. Freeman S, Eddy SL, McDonough M, Smith MK, Okoroafor N, Jordt H, Wenderoth MP 2014 Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics PNAS 111 8410 8415 10.1073/pnas.1319030111 24821756 4060654 http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1319030111
3. Jensen JL, Lawson A 2011 Effects of collaborative group composition and inquiry instruction on reasoning shifts and achievement in undergraduate biology CBE Life Sci Educ 10 64 73 10.1187/cbe.10-07-0089 21364101 3046889 http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.10-07-0089
4. President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) 2012 Engage to excel: producing one million additional college graduates with degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics Executive Office of the President Washington, DC
5. Kuhn D 1993 Science as argument: implications for teaching and learning scientific thinking Sci Educ 77 319 337 10.1002/sce.3730770306 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sce.3730770306
6. Hoskins SG, Stevens LM, Nehm RH 2007 Selective use of the primary literature transforms the classroom into a virtual laboratory Genetics 176 1381 1389 10.1534/genetics.107.071183 17483426 1931557 http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.107.071183
7. Hoskins SG, Stevens LM 2009 Learning our L.I.M.I.T.S.: less is more in teaching science Adv Physiol Educ 33 17 20 10.1152/advan.90184.2008 19261755 http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/advan.90184.2008
8. Hoskins SG, Krufka A 2015 The CREATE strategy benefits students and is a natural fit for faculty Microbe 10 108 112
9. Hoskins SG, Lopatto D, Stevens LM 2011 The C.R.E.A.T.E. approach to primary literature shifts undergraduates’ self-assessed ability to read and analyze journal articles, attitudes about science, and epistemological beliefs CBE Life Sci Educ 10 368 378 10.1187/cbe.11-03-0027 22135371 3228655 http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.11-03-0027
10. Gottesman AJ, Hoskins SG 2013 CREATE cornerstone: introduction to scientific thinking, a new course for STEM-interested freshmen demystifies scientific thinking through analysis of scientific literature CBE Life Sci Educ 12 59 72 10.1187/cbe.12-11-0201 23463229 3587857 http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.12-11-0201
11. Ding L, Mollohan KN 2015 How college-level introductory instruction can impact student epistemological beliefs J Coll Sci Teach 44 19 27 10.2505/4/jcst15_044_04_19 http://dx.doi.org/10.2505/4/jcst15_044_04_19
12. Mollohan KN 2015 PhD thesis Epistemologies and scientific reasoning skills among undergraduate science students Ohio State University Columbus, OH
13. Hansen MJ, Birol G 2014 Longitudinal study of student attitudes in a Biology program CBE Life Sci Educ 13 331 337 10.1187/cbe.13-06-0124 4041509 http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.13-06-0124
14. Stein B, Haynes A, Redding M 2012 Critical thinking assessment test, version 5 Center for Assessment & Improvement of Learning, Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN
16. Cohen J 1988 Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences 2nd ed Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Hillsdale, NJ
17. Hake RR 1998 Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: a six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses Am J Phys 66 64 74 10.1119/1.18809 http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.18809
18. Stevens LM, Hoskins SG 2014 The CREATE strategy for intensive analysis of primary literature can be used effectively by newly trained faculty to produce multiple shifts in diverse students CBE Life Sci Educ 13 224 242 10.1187/cbe.13-12-0239 4041501 http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.13-12-0239
19. Kenyon KL, Onorato ME, Gottesman AJ, Hoque J, Hoskins SG 2016 Testing CREATE at community colleges: an examination of faculty perceptions and diverse student shifts CBE Life Sci Educ 15 1 9 10.1187/cbe.15-07-0146 http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.15-07-0146
20. Hoskins SG, Gottesman AG, Kenyon KL CREATE 2YR/4YR faculty workshops: a focus on practice, reflection and novel curricular design leads to diverse gains for faculty at 2YR and 4YR Institutions J Microbiol Biol Educ 18 3 1 11
21. Jensen JL, Kummer TA, Godoy PD Improvements from a flipped classroom may simply be the fruits of active learning 2014 CBE Life Sci Educ 14 1 ar5 10.1187/cbe.14-08-0129 http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.14-08-0129
22. Adams WK, Perkins KK, Podolefsky NS, Dubson M, Finkelstein ND, Wieman CE 2006 New instrument for measuring student beliefs about physics and learning physics: the Colorado learning attitudes about science survey Phys Rev ST Phys Educ Res 2 010101 10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.2.010101 http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.2.010101
23. Adams WK, Wieman CE 2011 Development and validation of instruments to measure learning of expert-like thinking Int J Sci Educ 33 1289 1312 10.1080/09500693.2010.512369 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2010.512369
24. Barbera J, Adams WK, Wieman CE, Perkins KK 2008 Modifying and validating the Colorado learning attitudes about science survey for use in chemistry J Chem Educ 85 1435 1439 10.1021/ed085p1435 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed085p1435
25. Nomme KG, Birol G 2014 Course redesign: an evidence-based approach Can J Sch Teach Learn 5 1 28 10.5206/cjsotl-rcacea.2014.1.2 http://dx.doi.org/10.5206/cjsotl-rcacea.2014.1.2
26. Otero VK, Gray KE 2008 Attitudinal shifts across multiple universities using the physics and everyday thinking curriculum Phys Rev ST Phys Educ Res 4 020104 10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.4.020104 http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.4.020104
27. Brewe E, Kramer L, O’Brien G 2009 Modeling instruction: positive shifts in introductory physics measured with CLASS Phys Rev ST Phys Educ Res 5 013102 10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.5.013102 http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.5.013102
28. DeHaan RL 2009 Teaching creativity and inventive problem solving in science CBE Life Sci Educ 3 172 181 10.1187/cbe.08-12-0081 http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.08-12-0081
29. Tanner K 2012 Promoting student metacognition CBE Life Sci Educ 11 119 120 10.1187/cbe.12-03-0033 http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.12-03-0033
30. Waldrop MM 2015 The science of teaching science Nature 523 272 274 10.1038/523272a 26178948 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/523272a
31. Schwinn D 2016 Educate to transform: the art of developing curious minds Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 127 259 271
32. Shavelson RJ, Towne L 2012 Scientific research in education The National Academies Press Washington, DC
33. Trujillo CM, Anderson T, Pelaez N 2015 A model of how different biology experts explain molecular and cellular mechanisms CBE Life Sci Educ 14 ar20 10.1187/cbe.14-12-0229 25999313 4477736 http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.14-12-0229
34. Bransford J, Brown AL, Cocking RR 2000 Chapter 2 In How people learn: brain, mind, experience, and school, expanded edition The National Academies Press Washington, DC
35. Sawtelle V, Brewe E, Kramer L 2009 Validation study of the Colorado learning attitudes about science survey at a Hispanic-serving institution Phys Rev ST Phys Educ Res 5 023101 10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.5.023101 http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.5.023101

Supplemental Material

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmbe/10.1128/jmbe.v19i1.1440
2018-02-16
2019-10-15

Abstract:

Many science educators agree that 21 century students need to develop mature scientific thinking skills. Unsurprisingly, students’ and experts’ perceptions about the nature of scientific knowledge differ. Moreover, students’ naïve and entrenched epistemologies can preclude their development toward “thinking like scientists.” Novel teaching approaches that guide students toward more mature perceptions may be needed to support their development of scientific thinking skills. To address such issues, physics educators developed the Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey (CLASS), subsequently adapted for chemistry and biology. These surveys are “designed to compare novice and expert perceptions about the content and structure of a specific discipline; the source of knowledge about that discipline, including connection of the discipline to the real world; and problem-solving approaches” (Semsar , CBE Life Sci. Educ. 10:268–278; p 269). We used CLASS-Bio to track students’ perceptions of science in separate first-year and upper-level CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, Think of the next Experiment) electives, hypothesizing that perceptions would become significantly more expert-like across a semester. Both first-year and upper-level cohorts made significant expert-like shifts. Students also made significant critical thinking gains in CREATE courses. Our findings of more mature, expert-like perceptions of science post-course contrast with those of previous studies, where students’ thinking became significantly less expert-like across a term of introductory instruction and changed little in upper-level biology electives. Augmenting traditional biology curricula with CREATE courses could be an economical way to help undergraduates develop more mature views of science.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmbe/19/1/jmbe-19-6.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmbe/10.1128/jmbe.v19i1.1440&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1A

Click to view

FIGURE 1A

First-year CREATE students’ CLASS-Bio outcomes across one semester. CLASS-Bio outcomes in three iterations of the first-year Introduction to Scientific Thinking elective. First-year CREATE students made significant shifts on CLASS-Bio. Students took the CLASS-Bio survey in course weeks 1 and 14. Scoring as described in ( 1 ); percentages are the percentage of student responses that matched experts’ responses. CLASS-Bio tracks an Overall score and seven category scores. First-year CREATE students made significant shifts in the direction of expert-like thinking both Overall and in 5 of 7 CLASS-Bio categories. Significance, ** = < 0.01; * = < 0.05; matched-pair 2-tailed test. Error bars, ± SEM. = 21 matched-pairs; see Table S1a, Appendix 2 , for values and effect sizes for matched-pairs as well as for entire first-year cohort (all-participants)

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. February 2018 vol. 19 no. 1 doi:10.1128/jmbe.v19i1.1440
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1B

Click to view

FIGURE 1B

Upper-level CREATE students’ CLASS-Bio outcomes across one semester. Upper-level CREATE students made significant shifts on CLASS-Bio. CLASS-Bio outcomes in four iterations of the upper-level “Analysis of Scientific Literature using CREATE” elective. Students took the survey in course weeks 1 and 14. Scoring as described in ( 1 ); percentages are the percentage of student responses that matched experts’ responses. CLASS-Bio tracks an Overall score and seven category scores. Upper-level CREATE students made significant shifts in the direction of expert-like thinking both Overall and in 4 of 7 CLASS-Bio categories. Significance: *** = < 0.001; ** = < 0.01; matched-pair 2-tailed test. Error bars, ± SEM. = 56 matched-pairs; See Table S1b, Appendix 2 for values and effect sizes for matched-pairs as well as for entire upper-level cohort (all-participants).

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. February 2018 vol. 19 no. 1 doi:10.1128/jmbe.v19i1.1440
Download as Powerpoint

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error