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Makgeolli: Rapid Production of an Alcoholic Beverage from the Fermentation of Rice

    Authors: Adam M. Kiefer1, Caryn S. Seney1, Alison L. Lambright1, Kirsten A. Cottrill1, Virginia A. Young2,*
    VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Chemistry, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207; 2: Department of Biology, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207
    AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION
    • Received 07 January 2018 Accepted 04 April 2018 Published 29 June 2018
    • ©2018 Author(s). Published by the American Society for Microbiology.
    • [open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ and https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode), which grants the public the nonexclusive right to copy, distribute, or display the published work.

    • Supplemental materials available at http://asmscience.org/jmbe
    • *Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Biology, 1501 Mercer University Drive, Macon, GA 31207. Phone: 478-301-2577. Fax: 478-301-2067. E-mail: [email protected].
    Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. June 2018 vol. 19 no. 2 doi:10.1128/jmbe.v19i2.1572
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    Abstract:

    Undergraduate microbiology courses offer a perfect opportunity to introduce students to historical food preservation processes that are still in use today. Specifically, food fermentation exercises encourage students to consider other cultures and their food and beverage traditions, in addition to teaching students techniques that can be performed in their own kitchens. In previous semesters of an undergraduate microbiology course we have taught a variety of fermentations through the production of yogurt, sauerkraut, kimchi, and cheese. Student enthusiasm for these food labs led us to explore new fermentations, especially those from other cultures. To this end, a laboratory procedure and worksheets for producing the Korean rice wine makgeolli from fermented rice in the presence of amylase enzyme was developed. Students ferment the rice, bottle the ferment, and those of legal drinking age test the product while completing exercises that challenge them to explore the microbiological concepts of fermentation. Underlying themes of this laboratory activity also include basic concepts of food safety and kitchen cleanliness. The laboratory experiment can be completed in less than two weeks and can be modified easily for students of varying scientific backgrounds. Overall, the intersection of metabolism, food science, cultural diversity, and history excited students and enhanced their understanding of the microbial processes at work in fermentation.

References & Citations

1. Katz SE, Pollan M 2012 The art of fermentation: an in-depth exploration of essential concepts and processes from around the world Chelsea Green Publishing White River Junction, VT
2. Kiefer AM, Young VA 2014 Kimchi: spicy science for the undergraduate microbiology laboratory J Microbiol Biol Educ 15 297 298 10.1128/jmbe.v15i2.695 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v15i2.695
3. Sato BK, Alam U, Dacanay SJ, Lee AK, Shaffer JF 2015 Brewing for students: an inquiry-based microbiology lab J Microbiol Biol Educ 16 223 229 10.1128/jmbe.v16i2.914 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v16i2.914
4. Drake M, McKillip J 2000 Fermentation microbiology: making cheese, yogurt and buttermilk as a lab exercise Am Biol Teach 62 65 67 10.1662/0002-7685(2000)062[0065:FM]2.0.CO;2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1662/0002-7685(2000)062[0065:FM]2.0.CO;2
5. Gillespie B, Deutschman WA 2010 Brewing beer in the laboratory: grain amylases and yeast’s sweet tooth J Chem Educ 87 1244 1247 10.1021/ed100442b http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed100442b
6. Hooker PD, Deutschman WA, Avery BJ 2014 The biology and chemistry of brewing: an interdisciplinary course J Chem Educ 91 336 339 10.1021/ed400523m http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed400523m
7. Baker GA, Danenhower TM, Force LJ, Petersen KJ, Betts TA 2008 HPLC analysis of xxa- and xxb-acids in hops J Chem Educ 85 954 10.1021/ed085p954 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed085p954
8. Pelter MW, McQuade J 2005 Brewing science in the chemistry laboratory: a “mashing” investigation of starch and carbohydrates J Chem Educ 82 1811 10.1021/ed082p1811 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed082p1811
9. Egts H, Durben DJ, Dixson JA, Zehfus MH 2012 A multicomponent UV analysis of xxa- and xxb-acids in hops J Chem Educ 89 117 120 10.1021/ed1010536 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed1010536
10. McClure DW 1976 The chemistry of winemaking and brewing J Chem Educ 53 70 10.1021/ed053p70 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed053p70
11. Bering CL 1988 The biochemistryof brewing J Chem Educ 65 519 10.1021/ed065p519 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed065p519
12. Emmert EAB 2013 Biosafety guidelines for handling microorganisms in the teaching laboratory: development and rationale J Microbiol Biol Educ 14 78 83 10.1128/jmbe.v14i1.531 23858356 3706168 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v14i1.531
13. Kim E, Chang YH, Ko JY, Jeong Y 2013 Physicochemical and microbial properties of the Korean traditional rice wine, makgeolli, supplemented with banana during fermentation Prev Nutr Food Sci 18 203 209 10.3746/pnf.2013.18.3.203 http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2013.18.3.203
14. Park J-S, Song SH, Choi JB, Kim YS, Kwon SH, Park YS 2014 Physicochemical properties of Korean rice wine (makgeolli) fermented using yeasts isolated from Korean traditional nuruk, a starter culture Food Sci Biotechnol 23 1577 1585 10.1007/s10068-014-0214-1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-014-0214-1
15. Nile SH 2015 The nutritional, biochemical and health effects of makgeolli—a traditional Korean fermented cereal beverage J Inst Brew 121 457 463 10.1002/jib.264 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jib.264
16. Merkel S 2012 The development of curricular guidelines for introductory microbiology that focus on understanding J Microbiol Biol Educ 13 32 38 10.1128/jmbe.v13i1.363 23653779 3577306 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v13i1.363

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2018-06-29
2019-12-13

Abstract:

Undergraduate microbiology courses offer a perfect opportunity to introduce students to historical food preservation processes that are still in use today. Specifically, food fermentation exercises encourage students to consider other cultures and their food and beverage traditions, in addition to teaching students techniques that can be performed in their own kitchens. In previous semesters of an undergraduate microbiology course we have taught a variety of fermentations through the production of yogurt, sauerkraut, kimchi, and cheese. Student enthusiasm for these food labs led us to explore new fermentations, especially those from other cultures. To this end, a laboratory procedure and worksheets for producing the Korean rice wine makgeolli from fermented rice in the presence of amylase enzyme was developed. Students ferment the rice, bottle the ferment, and those of legal drinking age test the product while completing exercises that challenge them to explore the microbiological concepts of fermentation. Underlying themes of this laboratory activity also include basic concepts of food safety and kitchen cleanliness. The laboratory experiment can be completed in less than two weeks and can be modified easily for students of varying scientific backgrounds. Overall, the intersection of metabolism, food science, cultural diversity, and history excited students and enhanced their understanding of the microbial processes at work in fermentation.

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