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Program-Based Teaching and Learning To Increase Competency in Undergraduate Medical Students Using a Model of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program

    Authors: Vincent Mangayarkarasi1,*, Kumarasingam Kalaiselvi1, Devi Kavitha2, Vasudevan Chitraleka2, Ramraj Balaji3
    VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Microbiology, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India; 2: Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Cardiothoracic Medicine, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India; 3: Department of Community Medicine, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India
    AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION
    • Received 01 July 2018 Accepted 12 December 2018 Published 26 April 2019
    • ©2019 Author(s). Published by the American Society for Microbiology
    • [open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ and https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode), which grants the public the nonexclusive right to copy, distribute, or display the published work.

    • Supplemental materials available at http://asmscience.org/jmbe
    • *Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Microbiology, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District 603203, Tamil Nadu, India. Phone: 044-27454603. E-mail: [email protected]
    Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. April 2019 vol. 20 no. 1 doi:10.1128/jmbe.v20i1.1649
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    Abstract:

    Teaching methods need continuous innovation to encourage undergraduate medical students to enhance their competency level and skills. Every undergraduate medical student should be able to discuss the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) and Direct Observed Treatment Short (DOTS) course recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The DOTS strategy was launched in 1992, with the objective of detecting at least 70% of new sputum-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients and curing at least 85% of such patients. The aim of this study was to improve the competency level of Undergraduate (UG) Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students by teaching them the objectives of the RNTCP at a program implementation site in the medical college. The RNTCP could be considered and conducted as Program-Based Teaching and Learning (PBTL) for the UG medical students. The following skills were to be implemented in the RNTCP PBTL: Sputum Collection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and Grading, Mantoux test, and TB Culture and Molecular test (Gene Xpert). Phase II undergraduate MBBS students (N = 104) participated in the PBTL. This study was conducted in the RNTCP laboratory of a tertiary-care teaching medical college hospital. This descriptive study included advanced skill-based teaching such as Directly Observed Practical Skill, Demonstration-Observation-Assistance-Performance, Video Demonstrations, Role Play, and Group interaction as teaching tools. Pre-/post-test, Objective Structured Practical Examination, and frequently asked questions were used as assessment tools. The pre- and post-test marks were compared, and other assessments were also analyzed using SPSS. At the end of the teaching program, the feedback forms were collected from students and analyzed. The mean score obtained for 104 MBBS students in the pre-test, post-test, and other assessment tools were 213.3 and 487.5, respectively ( < 0.001). We conclude that skill-based teaching and learning tools to teach public health program like RNTCP provide valuable essential skills for undergraduate medical students. This Program Based Teaching and Learning could be successfully extended to all medical colleges.

References & Citations

1. Teixeira EG, Menzies D, Cunha AJ, Luiz RR, Ruffino-Netto A, Scartozzoni MS, Portela P, Trajman A 2008 Knowledge and practices of medical students to prevent tuberculosis transmission in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Rev Panam Salud Publica 24 4 265 270 10.1590/S1020-49892008001000006 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892008001000006
2. Momi B, Laxmi P 2014 Evaluation of different teaching methods used in physiology lectures Indian J Basic Appl Med Res 4 1 271 276
3. Shandana AK, Mian A, Sadia N 2015 Trends in medical education from traditional to integrated system: valued by first year MBBS students at a private medical college of Peshawar J Med Stud 1 1 1 8
4. Sharma SK, Mohan A, Chauhan LS, Narain JP, Kumar P, et al 2013 Contribution of medical colleges to tuberculosis control in India under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP): lessons learnt and challenges ahead Indian J Med Res 137 283 2 23563371 3657851
5. Arif K, Ali SA, Amanullah S 1997 Physician compliance with national tuberculosis treatment guidelines: a university hospital study Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2 2225 2230
6. Noé A, Ribeiro RM, Anselmo R, Maixenchs M, Sitole L, Munguambe K, Blanco S, le Souef P, García-Basteiro AL 2017 Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding tuberculosis care among health workers in Southern Mozambique BMC Pulm Med 17 2 10.1186/s12890-016-0344-8 28056943 5217625 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-016-0344-8
7. Busari A, Adeyemi B 2007 Knowledge of tuberculosis and its management practices among medical interns in a resource-poor setting: implications for disease control in sub-Saharan Africa Internet J Infect Dis 6 2
8. Srinivas DK, Adkoli BV 2009 Faculty development in medical education in India: the need of the day Al Ameen J Med Sci 2 1 6 13
9. Kwan A, Daniels B, Saria V, Satyanarayana S, Subbaraman R, McDowell A 2018 Variations in the quality of tuberculosis care in urban India: a cross-sectional, standardized patient study in two cities PLOS Med 15 9 e1002653 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002653 30252849 6155454 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002653
10. Dubey VK, Bhuarya RK 2001 Role of medical colleges in tuberculosis control NTI Bull 37 1–4 3 4
11. Revathi R, Dharanisri R 2018 Knowledge about tuberculosis among undergraduate medical students in a private college in Chennai Int J Comm Med Public Health 5 644 664 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20180243 http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20180243
12. Rajpal S, Mittal A, Dhingra VK, Malhotra R, Gupta R, Malhotra C, Taneja DK 2007 Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding tuberculosis and dots among interns in New Delhi J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 17 8 456 471

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2019-04-26
2019-10-21

Abstract:

Teaching methods need continuous innovation to encourage undergraduate medical students to enhance their competency level and skills. Every undergraduate medical student should be able to discuss the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) and Direct Observed Treatment Short (DOTS) course recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The DOTS strategy was launched in 1992, with the objective of detecting at least 70% of new sputum-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients and curing at least 85% of such patients. The aim of this study was to improve the competency level of Undergraduate (UG) Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students by teaching them the objectives of the RNTCP at a program implementation site in the medical college. The RNTCP could be considered and conducted as Program-Based Teaching and Learning (PBTL) for the UG medical students. The following skills were to be implemented in the RNTCP PBTL: Sputum Collection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and Grading, Mantoux test, and TB Culture and Molecular test (Gene Xpert). Phase II undergraduate MBBS students (N = 104) participated in the PBTL. This study was conducted in the RNTCP laboratory of a tertiary-care teaching medical college hospital. This descriptive study included advanced skill-based teaching such as Directly Observed Practical Skill, Demonstration-Observation-Assistance-Performance, Video Demonstrations, Role Play, and Group interaction as teaching tools. Pre-/post-test, Objective Structured Practical Examination, and frequently asked questions were used as assessment tools. The pre- and post-test marks were compared, and other assessments were also analyzed using SPSS. At the end of the teaching program, the feedback forms were collected from students and analyzed. The mean score obtained for 104 MBBS students in the pre-test, post-test, and other assessment tools were 213.3 and 487.5, respectively ( < 0.001). We conclude that skill-based teaching and learning tools to teach public health program like RNTCP provide valuable essential skills for undergraduate medical students. This Program Based Teaching and Learning could be successfully extended to all medical colleges.

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