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Antimicrobial Resistance in spp.

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  • Authors: Marisa Haenni1, Agnese Lupo2, Jean-Yves Madec3
  • Editors: Frank Møller Aarestrup4, Stefan Schwarz5, Jianzhong Shen6, Lina Cavaco7
    Affiliations: 1: Université de Lyon—ANSES, Unité Antibiorésistance et Virulence Bactériennes, Lyon, France; 2: Université de Lyon—ANSES, Unité Antibiorésistance et Virulence Bactériennes, Lyon, France; 3: Université de Lyon—ANSES, Unité Antibiorésistance et Virulence Bactériennes, Lyon, France; 4: Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark; 5: Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 6: China Agricultural University, Beijing, China; 7: Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Source: microbiolspec March 2018 vol. 6 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0008-2017
  • Received 30 January 2017 Accepted 04 January 2018 Published 29 March 2018
  • Marisa Haenni, [email protected]
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  • Abstract:

    The genus includes Gram-positive organisms shaped in cocci and organized in chains. They are commensals, pathogens, and opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals. Most species of veterinary relevance have a specific ecological niche, such as , which is almost exclusively an environmental pathogen causing bovine mastitis. In contrast, can be considered as a true zoonotic pathogen, causing specific diseases in humans after contact with infected animals or derived food products. Finally, species such as can be sporadically zoonotic, even though they are pathogens of both humans and animals independently. For clarification, a short taxonomical overview will be given here to highlight the diversity of streptococci that infect animals. Several families of antibiotics are used to treat animals for streptococcal infections. First-line treatments are penicillins (alone or in combination with aminoglycosides), macrolides and lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. Because of the selecting role of antibiotics, resistance phenotypes have been reported in streptococci isolated from animals worldwide. Globally, the dynamic of resistance acquisition in streptococci is slower than what is experienced in , probably due to the much more limited horizontal spread of resistance genes. Nonetheless, transposons or integrative and conjugative elements can disseminate resistance determinants among streptococci. Besides providing key elements on the prevalence of resistance in streptococci from animals, this article will also largely consider the mechanisms and molecular epidemiology of the major types of resistance to antimicrobials encountered in the most important streptococcal species in veterinary medicine.

  • Citation: Haenni M, Lupo A, Madec J. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance in spp.. Microbiol Spectrum 6(2):ARBA-0008-2017. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0008-2017.


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The genus includes Gram-positive organisms shaped in cocci and organized in chains. They are commensals, pathogens, and opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals. Most species of veterinary relevance have a specific ecological niche, such as , which is almost exclusively an environmental pathogen causing bovine mastitis. In contrast, can be considered as a true zoonotic pathogen, causing specific diseases in humans after contact with infected animals or derived food products. Finally, species such as can be sporadically zoonotic, even though they are pathogens of both humans and animals independently. For clarification, a short taxonomical overview will be given here to highlight the diversity of streptococci that infect animals. Several families of antibiotics are used to treat animals for streptococcal infections. First-line treatments are penicillins (alone or in combination with aminoglycosides), macrolides and lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. Because of the selecting role of antibiotics, resistance phenotypes have been reported in streptococci isolated from animals worldwide. Globally, the dynamic of resistance acquisition in streptococci is slower than what is experienced in , probably due to the much more limited horizontal spread of resistance genes. Nonetheless, transposons or integrative and conjugative elements can disseminate resistance determinants among streptococci. Besides providing key elements on the prevalence of resistance in streptococci from animals, this article will also largely consider the mechanisms and molecular epidemiology of the major types of resistance to antimicrobials encountered in the most important streptococcal species in veterinary medicine.

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Ten-year evolution of resistance in France in (A) and (B) .

Source: microbiolspec March 2018 vol. 6 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0008-2017
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Overview of streptococci causative of infections in humans and animals

Source: microbiolspec March 2018 vol. 6 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0008-2017
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Erythromycin and lincosamide resistance in streptococci in animal hosts

Source: microbiolspec March 2018 vol. 6 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0008-2017
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Distribution of the tetracycline resistance genes in streptococci in animal hosts

Source: microbiolspec March 2018 vol. 6 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0008-2017

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