1887
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

Optimization of Antimicrobial Treatment to Minimize Resistance Selection

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
  • Authors: Luca Guardabassi1, Mike Apley2, John Elmerdahl Olsen3, Pierre-Louis Toutain4, Scott Weese5
  • Editors: Frank Møller Aarestrup6, Stefan Schwarz7, Jianzhong Shen8, Lina Cavaco9
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark; 2: Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Manhattan, Kansas, 66506; 3: Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark; 4: INTHERES, Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, Toulouse, France; 5: Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada; 6: Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark; 7: Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 8: China Agricultural University, Beijing, China; 9: Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Source: microbiolspec June 2018 vol. 6 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0018-2017
  • Received 31 March 2017 Accepted 21 February 2018 Published 21 June 2018
  • Luca Guardabassi, [email protected]
image of Optimization of Antimicrobial Treatment to Minimize Resistance Selection
    Preview this microbiology spectrum article:
    Zoom in
    Zoomout

    Optimization of Antimicrobial Treatment to Minimize Resistance Selection, Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/6/3/ARBA-0018-2017-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/6/3/ARBA-0018-2017-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    Optimization of antimicrobial treatment is a cornerstone in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Various national and international authorities and professional veterinary and farming associations have released generic guidelines on prudent antimicrobial use in animals. However, these generic guidelines need to be translated into a set of animal species- and disease-specific practice recommendations. This article focuses on prevention of antimicrobial resistance and its complex relationship with treatment efficacy, highlighting key situations where the current antimicrobial drug products, treatment recommendations, and practices may be insufficient to minimize antimicrobial selection. The authors address this topic using a multidisciplinary approach involving microbiology, pharmacology, clinical medicine, and animal husbandry. In the first part of the article, we define four key targets for implementing the concept of optimal antimicrobial treatment in veterinary practice: (i) reduction of overall antimicrobial consumption, (ii) improved use of diagnostic testing, (iii) prudent use of second-line, critically important antimicrobials, and (iv) optimization of dosage regimens. In the second part, we provided practice recommendations for achieving these four targets, with reference to specific conditions that account for most antimicrobial use in pigs (intestinal and respiratory disease), cattle (respiratory disease and mastitis), dogs and cats (skin, intestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory disease), and horses (upper respiratory disease, neonatal foal care, and surgical infections). Lastly, we present perspectives on the education and research needs for improving antimicrobial use in the future.

  • Citation: Guardabassi L, Apley M, Olsen J, Toutain P, Weese S. 2018. Optimization of Antimicrobial Treatment to Minimize Resistance Selection. Microbiol Spectrum 6(3):ARBA-0018-2017. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0018-2017.

References

1. World Health Organization (WHO). 2015. AMR: draft global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. http://www.who.int/antimicrobial-resistance/global-action-plan/en/.
2. Review on Antimicrobial Resistance. 2015. Antimicrobials in agriculture and the environment: reducing unnecessary use and waste. https://amr-review.org/sites/default/files/Antimicrobials%20in%20agriculture%20and%20the%20environment%20-%20Reducing%20unnecessary%20use%20and%20waste.pdf.
3. European Commission. 2017. EU One Health action plan against AMR. https://ec.europa.eu/health/amr/.
4. European Medicines Agency (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use (CVMP) and EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ). 2017. EMA and EFSA Joint Scientific Opinion on measures to reduce the need to use antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry in the European Union, and the resulting impacts on food safety (RONAFA). EFSA J 15:4666.
5. European Commission. 2015. Commission notice. Guidelines for the prudent use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine. Commission notice 2015/C 299/04. http://ec.europa.eu/health//sites/health/files/antimicrobial_resistance/docs/2015_prudent_use_guidelines_en.pdf.
6. The White House. 2015. National action plan for combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/docs/national_action_plan_for_combating_antibotic-resistant_bacteria.pdf.
7. Teale CJ, Moulin G. 2012. Prudent use guidelines: a review of existing veterinary guidelines. Rev Sci Tech 31:343–354.
8. Weese JS, Giguère S, Guardabassi L, Morley PS, Papich M, Ricciuto DR, Sykes JE 2015. ACVIM consensus statement on therapeutic antimicrobial use in animls and antimicrobial resistance. J Vet Intern Med 29:487–498 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.12562. [PubMed]
9. Chantziaras I, Boyen F, Callens B, Dewulf J. 2014. Correlation between veterinary antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals: a report on seven countries. J Antimicrob Chemother 69:827–834 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkt443. [PubMed]
10. Dorado-García A, Dohmen W, Bos ME, Verstappen KM, Houben M, Wagenaar JA, Heederik DJ. 2015. Dose-response relationship between antimicrobial drugs and livestock-associated MRSA in pig farming. Emerg Infect Dis 21:950–959 http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.140706. [PubMed]
11. Catry B, Dewulf J, Maes D, Pardon B, Callens B, Vanrobaeys M, Opsomer G, de Kruif A, Haesebrouck F. 2016. Effect of antimicrobial consumption and production type on antibacterial resistance in the bovine respiratory and digestive tract. PLoS One 11:e0146488 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146488. [PubMed]
12. Cavaco LM, Abatih E, Aarestrup FM, Guardabassi L. 2008. Selection and persistence of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal flora of pigs treated with amoxicillin, ceftiofur, or cefquinome. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:3612–3616. [PubMed]
13. Zhang L, Huang Y, Zhou Y, Buckley T, Wang HH. 2013. Antibiotic administration routes significantly influence the levels of antibiotic resistance in gut microbiota. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:3659–3666. [PubMed]
14. Bibbal D, Dupouy V, Ferré JP, Toutain PL, Fayet O, Prère MF, Bousquet-Mélou A. 2007. Impact of three ampicillin dosage regimens on selection of ampicillin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae and excretion of blaTEM genes in swine feces. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:4785–4790 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00252-07. [PubMed]
15. Gibbons JF, Boland F, Egan J, Fanning S, Markey BK, Leonard FC. 2016. Antimicrobial resistance of faecal Escherichia coli isolates from pig farms with different durations of in-feed antimicrobial use. Zoonoses Public Health 63:241–250 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12225. [PubMed]
16. Garcia-Migura L, Hendriksen RS, Fraile L, Aarestrup FM. 2014. Antimicrobial resistance of zoonotic and commensal bacteria in Europe: the missing link between consumption and resistance in veterinary medicine. Vet Microbiol 170:1–9 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.01.013. [PubMed]
17. Erol E, Locke SJ, Donahoe JK, Mackin MA, Carter CN. 2012. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus spp. from horses: a retrospective study (2000-2010). J Vet Diagn Invest 24:142–147 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638711434138. [PubMed]
18. Petersen A, Christensen JP, Kuhnert P, Bisgaard M, Olsen JE. 2006. Vertical transmission of a fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli within an integrated broiler operation. Vet Microbiol 116:120–128 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.03.015. [PubMed]
19. Bednorz C, Oelgeschläger K, Kinnemann B, Hartmann S, Neumann K, Pieper R, Bethe A, Semmler T, Tedin K, Schierack P, Wieler LH, Guenther S. 2013. The broader context of antibiotic resistance: zinc feed supplementation of piglets increases the proportion of multi-resistant Escherichia coliin vivo. Int J Med Microbiol 303:396–403 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2013.06.004. [PubMed]
20. Food and Drug Administration. 2015. Department of Human Health and Services. Veterinary Feed Directive. Fed Regist 80:31708–31735. ••• https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-06-03/pdf/2015-13393.pdf.
21. Dorado-García A, Mevius DJ, Jacobs JJ, Van Geijlswijk IM, Mouton JW, Wagenaar JA, Heederik DJ. 2016. Quantitative assessment of antimicrobial resistance in livestock during the course of a nationwide antimicrobial use reduction in the Netherlands. J Antimicrob Chemother 71:3607–3619 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkw308. [PubMed]
22. Jensen VF, de Knegt LV, Andersen VD, Wingstrand A. 2014. Temporal relationship between decrease in antimicrobial prescription for Danish pigs and the “Yellow Card” legal intervention directed at reduction of antimicrobial use. Prev Vet Med 117:554–564 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.08.006. [PubMed]
23. National Food Institute, Statens Serum Institut. 2012. DANMAP 2011. Use of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistancein bacteria from food animals, food and humans in Denmark. https://danmap.org/~/media/Projekt%20sites/Danmap/DANMAP%20reports/Danmap_2011.ashx.
24. National Food Institute, Statens Serum Institut. 2016. DANMAP 2015. Use of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, food and humans in Denmark. https://danmap.org/~/media/Projekt%20sites/Danmap/DANMAP%20reports/DANMAP%20%202015/DANMAP%202015.ashx.
25. Aarestrup FM, Jensen VF, Emborg HD, Jacobsen E, Wegener HC. 2010. Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark. Am J Vet Res 71:726–733 http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.71.7.726. [PubMed]
26. Emborg H, Ersbøll AK, Heuer OE, Wegener HC. 2001. The effect of discontinuing the use of antimicrobial growth promoters on the productivity in the Danish broiler production. Prev Vet Med 50:53–70 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(01)00218-5.
27. EU Commission. 2003. Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2003 on additives for use in animal nutrition. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32003R1831.
28. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine. 2017. FDA announces implementation of GFI#213, outlines continuing efforts to address antimicrobial resistance. CVM update 3 January 2017. Accessed 28 March 2017. https://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/NewsEvents/CVMUpdates/ucm535154.htm.
29. Government of Canada. 2014. Notice to stakeholders: collaborative efforts to promote the judicious use of medically-important antimicrobial drugs in food animal production. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/vet/antimicrob/amr-notice-ram-avis-20140410-eng.php.
30. Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP). 2015. State of the World’s Antibiotics, 2015. CDDEP, Washington, DC. http://cddep.org/publications/state_worlds_antibiotics_2015#sthash.u0R3NX7U.dpbs.
31. World Health Organization (WHO). 2000. WHO global principles for the containment of antimicrobial resistance in animals intended for food. In Report of a WHO consultation with the participation of the Food and Agriculture of the United Nations and the Office International des Epizooties, 5–9 June, Geneva, Switzerland. WHO/CDS/CSR/APH/2000.4. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/68931/1/WHO_CDS_CSR_APH_2000.4.pdfE/.
32. European Medicines Agency (EMA). 2016. Question and answer on the CVMP guideline on the SPC for antimicrobial products (EMEA/CVMP/SAGAM/383441/2005). EMA/CVMP/414812/2011-Rev.2. Veterinary Medicines Division. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Other/2011/07/WC500109155.pdf.
33. Ferran AA, Toutain PL, Bousquet-Mélou A. 2011. Impact of early versus later fluoroquinolone treatment on the clinical; microbiological and resistance outcomes in a mouse-lung model of Pasteurella multocida infection. Vet Microbiol 148:292–297 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.09.005. [PubMed]
34. Vasseur MV, Laurentie M, Rolland JG, Perrin-Guyomard A, Henri J, Ferran AA, Toutain PL, Bousquet-Mélou A. 2014. Low or high doses of cefquinome targeting low or high bacterial inocula cure Klebsiella pneumoniae lung infections but differentially impact the levels of antibiotic resistance in fecal flora. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58:1744–1748 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02135-13. [PubMed]
35. Lhermie G, Ferran AA, Assié S, Cassard H, El Garch F, Schneider M, Woerhlé F, Pacalin D, Delverdier M, Bousquet-Mélou A, Meyer G. 2016. Impact of timing and dosage of a fluoroquinolone treatment on the microbiological, pathological, and clinical outcomes of calves challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica. Front Microbiol 7:237 http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00237. [PubMed]
36. D’Agata EM, Dupont-Rouzeyrol M, Magal P, Olivier D, Ruan S. 2008. The impact of different antibiotic regimens on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. PLoS One 3:e4036 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004036. [PubMed]
37. Herrero-Fresno A, Larsen I, Olsen JE. 2015. Genetic relatedness of commensal Escherichia coli from nursery pigs in intensive pig production in Denmark and molecular characterization of genetically different strains. J Appl Microbiol 119:342–353 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jam.12840. [PubMed]
38. Postma M, Vanderhaeghen W, Sarrazin S, Maes D, Dewulf J. 2017. Reducing antimicrobial usage in pig production without jeopardizing production parameters. Zoonoses Public Health 64:63–74 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12283. [PubMed]
39. Rojo-Gimeno C, Postma M, Dewulf J, Hogeveen H, Lauwers L, Wauters E. 2016. Farm-economic analysis of reducing antimicrobial use whilst adopting improved management strategies on farrow-to-finish pigfarms. Prev Vet Med 129:74–87 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.05.001. [PubMed]
40. Bak H, Rathkjen PH. 2009. Reduced use of antimicrobials after vaccination of pigs against porcine proliferative enteropathy in a Danish SPF herd. Acta Vet Scand 51:1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-51-1. [PubMed]
41. Cheng G, Hao H, Xie S, Wang X, Dai M, Huang L, Yuan Z. 2014. Antibiotic alternatives: the substitution of antibiotics in animal husbandry? Front Microbiol 5:217 http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00217. [PubMed]
42. De Briyne N, Atkinson J, Pokludová L, Borriello SP, Price S. 2013. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing habits and use of sensitivity testing amongst veterinarians in Europe. Vet Rec 173:475 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.101454. [PubMed]
43. Guardabassi L, Damborg P, Stamm I, Kopp PA, Broens EM, Toutain PL, ESCMID Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology. 2017. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future. Vet Dermatol 28:146-e30 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12414. [PubMed]
44. World Health Organization (WHO). 2016. Critically Important Antimicrobials for Human Medicine, 5th rev. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/antimicrobials-fifth/en/.
45. World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). 2007. OIE list of antimicrobials of veterinary importance. http://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D9840.PDF.
46. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 2016. The European Union summary report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2014. EFSA J 14:4380. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/4380
47. Tam VH, Louie A, Deziel MR, Liu W, Drusano GL. 2007. The relationship between quinolone exposures and resistance amplification is characterized by an inverted U: a new paradigm for optimizing pharmacodynamics to counterselect resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:744–747 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00334-06. [PubMed]
48. Firsov AA, Strukova EN, Shlykova DS, Portnoy YA, Kozyreva VK, Edelstein MV, Dovzhenko SA, Kobrin MB, Zinner SH. 2013. Bacterial resistance studies using in vitro dynamic models: the predictive power of the mutant prevention and minimum inhibitory antibiotic concentrations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:4956–4962 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00578-13. [PubMed]
49. Blondeau JM, Borsos S, Blondeau LD, Blondeau BJ, Hesje CE. 2012. Comparative minimum inhibitory and mutant prevention drug concentrations of enrofloxacin, ceftiofur, florfenicol, tilmicosin and tulathromycin against bovine clinical isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica. Vet Microbiol 160:85–90 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.05.006. [PubMed]
50. Toutain PL, Ferran AA, Bousquet-Melou A, Pelligand L, Lees P. 2016. Veterinary medicine needs new and innovative green antimicrobial drugs. Front Microbiol 7:1196 http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01196. [PubMed]
51. Pollet RA, Glatz CE, Dyer DC, Barnes HJ. 1983. Pharmacokinetics of chlortetracycline potentiation with citric acid in the chicken. Am J Vet Res 44:1718–1721. [PubMed]
52. Pijpers A, Schoevers EJ, van Gogh H, van Leengoed LA, Visser IJ, van Miert AS, Verheijden JH. 1991. The influence of disease on feed and water consumption and on pharmacokinetics of orally administered oxytetracycline in pigs. J Anim Sci 69:2947–2954. [PubMed]
53. Nielsen P, Gyrd-Hansen N. 1996. Bioavailability of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline after oral administration to fed and fasted pigs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 19:305–311 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2885.1996.tb00054.x. [PubMed]
54. Lindecrona RH, Friis C, Nielsen JP. 2000. Pharmacokinetics and penetration of danofloxacin into the gastrointestinal tract in healthy and in Salmonella typhimurium infected pigs. Res Vet Sci 68:211–216. [PubMed]
55. Nguyen TT, Chachaty E, Huy C, Cambier C, de Gunzburg J, Mentré F, Andremont A. 2012. Correlation between fecal concentrations of ciprofloxacin and fecal counts of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in piglets treated with ciprofloxacin: toward new means to control the spread of resistance? Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:4973–4975 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.06402-11. [PubMed]
56. Vasseur M, Ferran A, Bousquet-Mélou A, Toutain PL. 2012. Impact of early versus later beta-lactam treatments on clinical and microbiological outcomes in an original mouse model of airborne Pasteurella multocida lung infection, p 124. In EAVPT (ed), 12th International Congress of the European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands.
57. Toutain PL, del Castillo JRE, Bousquet-Mélou A. 2002. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach to a rational dosage regimen for antibiotics. Res Vet Sci 73:105–114 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0034-5288(02)00039-5.
58. Toutain PL, Lees P. 2004. Integration and modelling of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data to optimize dosage regimens in veterinary medicine. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 27:467–477 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2885.2004.00613.x. [PubMed]
59. Ismail M, El-Kattan YA. 2007. Comparative pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in healthy and Mannheimia haemolytica infected calves. Res Vet Sci 82:398–404 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2006.10.001. [PubMed]
60. Mzyk DA, Baynes RE, Messenger KM, Martinez M, Smith GW. 2017. Pharmacokinetics and distribution in interstitial and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid of danofloxacin in ruminant and preruminant calves. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 40:179–191 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12346. [PubMed]
61. Ensink JM, Klein WR, Mevius DJ, Klarenbeek A, Vulto AG. 1992. Bioavailability of oral penicillins in the horse: a comparison of pivampicillin and amoxicillin. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 15:221–230 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2885.1992.tb01010.x. [PubMed]
62. Baggot JD, Love DN, Stewart J, Raus J. 1988. Bioavailability and disposition kinetics of amoxicillin in neonatal foals. Equine Vet J 20:125–127 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1988.tb01473.x. [PubMed]
63. Agersø H, Friis C. 1998. Bioavailability of amoxycillin in pigs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 21:41–46 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2885.1998.00107.x. [PubMed]
64. Küng K, Wanner M. 1994. Bioavailability of different forms of amoxycillin administered orally to dogs. Vet Rec 135:552–554 Bioavailability of different forms of amoxycillin administered orally to dogs. [PubMed]
65. Sánchez Navarro A. 2005. New formulations of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid: a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic review. Clin Pharmacokinet 44:1097–1115 http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003088-200544110-00001. [PubMed]
66. Ambrose PG, Grasela DM. 2000. The use of Monte Carlo simulation to examine pharmacodynamic variance of drugs: fluoroquinolone pharmacodynamics against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 38:151–157.
67. Drusano GL, Preston SL, Hardalo C, Hare R, Banfield C, Andes D, Vesga O, Craig WA. 2001. Use of preclinical data for selection of a phase II/III dose for evernimicin and identification of a preclinical MIC breakpoint. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:13–22 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.45.1.13-22.2001. [PubMed]
68. Dudley MN, Ambrose PG. 2000. See comment in PubMed Commons below Pharmacodynamics in the study of drug resistance and establishing in vitro susceptibility breakpoints: ready for prime time. Curr Opin Microbiol 3:515–21.
69. Toutain PL, Potter T, Pelligand L, Lacroix M, Illambas J, Lees P. 2017. Standard PK/PD concepts can be applied to determine a dosage regimen for a macrolide: the case of tulathromycin in the calf. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 40:16–27 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12333. [PubMed]
70. Guillemot D, Carbon C, Vauzelle-Kervroëdan F, Balkau B, Maison P, Bouvenot G, Eschwège E. 1998. Inappropriateness and variability of antibiotic prescription among French office-based physicians. J Clin Epidemiol 51:61–68 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(97)00221-7.
71. Randall LP, Cooles SW, Coldham NC, Stapleton KS, Piddock LJ, Woodward MJ. 2006. Modification of enrofloxacin treatment regimens for poultry experimentally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 to minimize selection of resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:4030–4037 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00525-06. [PubMed]
72. Ungemach FR, Müller-Bahrdt D, Abraham G. 2006. Guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials and their implications on antibiotic usage in veterinary medicine. Int J Med Microbiol 296(Suppl 41) :33–38 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2006.01.059. [PubMed]
73. Anonymous. 2015. Pig Veterinary Society: prescribing principles for antimicrobials. http://www.pigvetsoc.org.uk/files/document/92/1401%20PIG%20VETERINARY%20SOCIETY-PP%20final.pdf.
74. Anonymous. 2016. Guidelines for the use of antimicrobials in the South African pig industry. http://www.sava.co.za/2017/05/26/antibiotic-guidelines-pig-industry/.
75. Burch DGS, Duran OC, Aarestrup FM. 2009. Guidelines for antimicrobial use in swine, p 102–125. In Guardabassi L, Jensen LB, Kruse H (ed), Guide to Antimicrobial Use in Animals. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444302639.ch7.
76. Anonymous. 2013. Guidelines on Good Antibiotic Practice: As Little As Possible, but As Often As Possible. Videncenter for Svineproduktion, Landbrug og Fødevarer. http://svineproduktion.dk/viden/i-stalden/management/manualer/antibiotika
77. Jensen VF, Emborg HD, Aarestrup FM. 2012. Indications and patterns of therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents in the Danish pig production from 2002 to 2008. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 35:33–46 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2885.2011.01291.x. [PubMed]
78. Callens B, Persoons D, Maes D, Laanen M, Postma M, Boyen F, Haesebrouck F, Butaye P, Catry B, Dewulf J. 2012. Prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use in Belgian fattening pig herds. Prev Vet Med 106:53–62 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2012.03.001. [PubMed]
79. van Rennings L, von Münchhausen C, Ottilie H, Hartmann M, Merle R, Honscha W, Käsbohrer A, Kreienbrock L. 2015. Cross-sectional study on antibiotic usage in pigs in Germany. PLoS One 10:e0119114 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119114. [PubMed]
80. Heo JM, Opapeju FO, Pluske JR, Kim JC, Hampson DJ, Nyachoti CM. 2013. Gastrointestinal health and function in weaned pigs: a review of feeding strategies to control post-weaning diarrhoea without using in-feed antimicrobial compounds. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 97:207–237 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012.01284.x. [PubMed]
81. Melkebeek V, Goddeeris BM, Cox E. 2013. ETEC vaccination in pigs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 152:37–42 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.09.024. [PubMed]
82. Taylor D. 1999. Clostridial infections, p 395–412. In Straw BE, D’Allaire S, Mengeling WL, Taylor D (ed), Diseases of Swine. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA. [PubMed]
83. Riising HJ, Murmans M, Witvliet M. 2005. Protection against neonatal Escherichia coli diarrhoea in pigs by vaccination of sows with a new vaccine that contains purified enterotoxic E. coli virulence factors F4ac, F4ab, F5 and F6 fimbrial antigens and heat-labile E. coli enterotoxin (LT) toxoid. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 52:296–300 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0450.2005.00857.x. [PubMed]
84. Suiryanrayna MVAN, Ramana JV. 2015. A review of the effects of dietary organic acids fed to swine. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 6:45 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-015-0042-z. [PubMed]
85. Gantois I, Ducatelle R, Pasmans F, Haesebrouck F, Hautefort I, Thompson A, Hinton JC, Van Immerseel F. 2006. Butyrate specifically down-regulates Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 gene expression. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:946–949 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.72.1.946-949.2006. [PubMed]
86. Hu Q, Zhao Z, Fang S, Zhang Y, Feng J. 2017. Phytosterols improve immunity and exert anti-inflammatory activiey in weaned piglets. J Sci Food Agric 97:4103–4109 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8277. [PubMed]
87. Den Hartog LA, Smits CHM, Henridks WH. 2016. Feed additive strategies for replacement of antimicrobial growth promoters and a responsible use of antimicrobials. Feedipedia www.feedipedia.org No 34, October 2016.
88. Thacker PA. 2013. Alternatives to antibiotics as growth promoters for use in swine production: a review. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 4:35 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2049-1891-4-35. [PubMed]
89. Jäger HC, McKinley TJ, Wood JL, Pearce GP, Williamson S, Strugnell B, Done S, Habernoll H, Palzer A, Tucker AW. 2012. Factors associated with pleurisy in pigs: a case-control analysis of slaughter pig data for England and Wales. PLoS One 7:e29655 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029655. [PubMed]
90. Fablet C, Dorenlor V, Eono F, Eveno E, Jolly JP, Portier F, Bidan F, Madec F, Rose N. 2012. Noninfectious factors associated with pneumonia and pleuritis in slaughtered pigs from 143 farrow-to-finish pig farms. Prev Vet Med 104:271–280 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.11.012. [PubMed]
91. Maes D, Segales J, Meyns T, Sibila M, Pieters M, Haesebrouck F. 2008. Control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs. Vet Microbiol 126:297–309 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.09.008. [PubMed]
92. Stärk KD, Miserez R, Siegmann S, Ochs H, Infanger P, Schmidt J. 2007. A successful national control programme for enzootic respiratory diseases in pigs in Switzerland. Rev Sci Tech 26:595–606 http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.26.3.1768. [PubMed]
93. Chae C. 2016. Porcine respiratory disease complex: interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.Vet J 212:1–6 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.10.030. [PubMed]
94. Ramirez CR, Harding AL, Forteguerri EB, Aldridge BM, Lowe JF. 2015. Limited efficacy of antimicrobial metaphylaxis in finishing pigs: a randomized clinical trial. Prev Vet Med 121:176–178 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.06.002. [PubMed]
95. Bos ME, Taverne FJ, van Geijlswijk IM, Mouton JW, Mevius DJ, Heederik DJ, Netherlands Veterinary Medicines Authority (SDa). 2013. Consumption of antimicrobials in pigs, veal calves, and broilers in the Netherlands: quantitative results of nationwide collection of data in 2011. PLoS One 8:e77525 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077525. [PubMed]
96. Larsen I, Nielsen SS, Olsen JE, Nielsen JP. 2016. The efficacy of oxytetracycline treatment at batch, pen and individual level on Lawsonia intracellularis infection in nursery pigs in a randomised clinical trial. Prev Vet Med 124:25–33 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.12.018. [PubMed]
97. Græsbøll K, Damborg P, Mellerup A, Herrero-Fresno A, Larsen I, Holm A, Nielsen JP, Christiansen LE, Angen Ø, Ahmed S, Folkesson A, Olsen JE. 2017. Effect of tetracycline dose and treatment mode on selection of resistant coliform bacteria in nursery pigs. Appl Environ Microbiol 83:e00538–e17 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00538-17. [PubMed]
98. Weber N, Nielsen JP, Jakobsen AS, Pedersen LL, Hansen CF, Pedersen KS. 2015. Occurrence of diarrhoea and intestinal pathogens in non-medicated nursery pigs. Acta Vet Scand 57:64 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13028-015-0156-5. [PubMed]
99. Alali WQ, Scott HM, Harvey RB, Norby B, Lawhorn DB, Pillai SD. 2008. Longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from integrated multisite cohorts of humans and swine. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:3672–3681 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02624-07. [PubMed]
100. Liu Z, Zhang Z, Yan H, Li J, Shi L. 2015. Isolation and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains from pork and environmental samples in Xiamen, China. J Food Prot 78:78–88 http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-172. [PubMed]
101. Mirajkar NS, Davies PR, Gebhart CJ. 2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Brachyspira species isolated from swine herds in the United States. J Clin Microbiol 54:2109–2119 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00834-16. [PubMed]
102. Pringle M, Landén A, Unnerstad HE, Molander B, Bengtsson B. 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010. Acta Vet Scand 54:54 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-54-54. [PubMed]
103. Kirchgässner C, Schmitt S, Borgström A, Wittenbrink MM. 2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Switzerland. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 158:405–410 http://dx.doi.org/10.17236/sat00066. [PubMed]
104. Yeh JY, Lee JH, Yeh HR, Kim A, Lee JY, Hwang JM, Kang BK, Kim JM, Choi IS, Lee JB. 2011. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of two Lawsonia intracellularis isolates associated with proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy and porcine intestinal adenomatosis in South Korea. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:4451–4453 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00408-11. [PubMed]
105. Wattanaphansak S, Singer RS, Gebhart CJ. 2009. In vitro antimicrobial activity against 10 North American and European Lawsonia intracellularis isolates. Vet Microbiol 134:305–310 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.08.007. [PubMed]
106. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). 2013. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals. Approved standard VET01-A4. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
107. Vicca J, Stakenborg T, Maes D, Butaye P, Peeters J, de Kruif A, Haesebrouck F. 2004. In vitro susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4470–4472 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.48.11.4470-4472.2004. [PubMed]
108. Stakenborg T, Vicca J, Butaye P, Maes D, Minion FC, Peeters J, De Kruif A, Haesebrouck F. 2005. Characterization of in vivo acquired resistance of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to macrolides and lincosamides. Microb Drug Resist 11:290–294 http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2005.11.290. [PubMed]
109. Opriessnig T, Giménez-Lirola LG, Halbur PG. 2011. Polymicrobial respiratory disease in pigs. Anim Health Res Rev 12:133–148 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1466252311000120. [PubMed]
110. Ruiz VL, Bersano JG, Carvalho AF, Catroxo MH, Chiebao DP, Gregori F, Miyashiro S, Nassar AF, Oliveira TM, Ogata RA, Scarcelli EP, Tonietti PO. 2016. Case-control study of pathogens involved in piglet diarrhea. BMC Res Notes 9:22 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1751-2. [PubMed]
111. Palzer A, Ritzmann M, Wolf G, Heinritzi K. 2008. Associations between pathogens in healthy pigs and pigs with pneumonia. Vet Rec 162:267–271 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.162.9.267. [PubMed]
112. Ståhl M, Kokotovic B, Hjulsager CK, Breum SO, Angen Ø. 2011. The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Vet Microbiol 151:307–314 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.03.013. [PubMed]
113. Clasen J, Mellerup A, Olsen JE, Angen Ø, Folkesson A, Halasa T, Toft N, Birkegård AC. 2016. Determining the optimal number of individual samples to pool for quantification of average herd levels of antimicrobial resistance genes in Danish pig herds using high-throughput qPCR. Vet Microbiol 189:46–51 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.04.017. [PubMed]
114. Pedersen KS, Ståhl M, Guedes RM, Angen Ø, Nielsen JP, Jensen TK. 2012. Association between faecal load of Lawsonia intracellularis and pathological findings of proliferative enteropathy in pigs with diarrhoea. BMC Vet Res 8:198 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-8-198. [PubMed]
115. Pedersen KS, Stege H, Jensen TK, Guedes R, Ståhl M, Nielsen JP, Hjulsager C, Larsen LE, Angen Ø. 2013. Diagnostic performance of fecal quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of Lawsonia intracellularis-associated proliferative enteropathy in nursery pigs. J Vet Diagn Invest 25:336–340 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638713480499. [PubMed]
116. Pedersen KS, Okholm E, Johansen M, Angen Ø, Jorsal SE, Nielsen JP, Bækbo P. 2015. Clinical utility and performance of sock sampling in weaner pig diarrhoea. Prev Vet Med 120:313–320 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.04.015. [PubMed]
117. Vangroenweghe F, Karriker L, Main R, Christianson E, Marsteller T, Hammen K, Bates J, Thomas P, Ellingson J, Harmon K, Abate S, Crawford K. 2015. Assessment of litter prevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in preweaned piglets utilizing an antemortem tracheobronchial mucus collection technique and a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. J Vet Diagn Invest 27:606–610 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638715595062. [PubMed]
118. Tobias TJ, Bouma A, Klinkenberg D, Daemen AJ, Stegeman JA, Wagenaar JA, Duim B. 2012. Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs by real-time quantitative PCR for the apxIVA gene. Vet J 193:557–560 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.02.004. [PubMed]
119. Scherrer S, Frei D, Wittenbrink MM. 2016. A novel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting toxigenic Pasteurella multocida in nasal swabs from swine. Acta Vet Scand 58:83 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13028-016-0267-7. [PubMed]
120. Zhang M, Xie Z, Xie L, Deng X, Xie Z, Luo S, Liu J, Pang Y, Khan MI. 2015. Simultaneous detection of eight swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens using a novel GeXP analyser-based multiplex PCR assay. J Virol Methods 224:9–15 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2015.08.001. [PubMed]
121. Pedersen KS, Johansen M, Angen O, Jorsal SE, Nielsen JP, Jensen TK, Guedes R, Ståhl M, Bækbo P. 2014. Herd diagnosis of low pathogen diarrhoea in growing pigs: a pilot study. Ir Vet J 67:24 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2046-0481-67-24. [PubMed]
122. Munk P, Andersen VD, de Knegt L, Jensen MS, Knudsen BE, Lukjancenko O, Mordhorst H, Clasen J, Agersø Y, Folkesson A, Pamp SJ, Vigre H, Aarestrup FM. 2017. A sampling and metagenomic sequencing-based methodology for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in swine herds. J Antimicrob Chemother 72:385–392 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkw415. [PubMed]
123. Pedersen KS, Kristensen CS, Nielsen JP. 2012. Demonstration of non-specific colitis and increased crypt depth in colon of weaned pigs with diarrhea. Vet Q 32:45–49 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2012.675091. [PubMed]
124. de Jong A, Thomas V, Simjee S, Moyaert H, El Garch F, Maher K, Morrissey I, Butty P, Klein U, Marion H, Rigaut D, Vallé M. 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe: the VetPath study. Vet Microbiol 172:202–215 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.04.008. [PubMed]
125. Dayao DA, Gibson JS, Blackall PJ, Turni C. 2014. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria associated with porcine respiratory disease in Australia. Vet Microbiol 171:232–235 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.03.014. [PubMed]
126. Vanni M, Merenda M, Barigazzi G, Garbarino C, Luppi A, Tognetti R, Intorre L. 2012. Antimicrobial resistance of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from swine. Vet Microbiol 156:172–177 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.10.022. [PubMed]
127. Sweeney MT, Quesnell R, Tiwari R, Lemay M, Watts JL. 2013. In vitro activity and rodent efficacy of clinafloxacin for bovine and swine respiratory disease. Front Microbiol 4:154 http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2013.00154. [PubMed]
128. Lauritzen B, Lykkesfeldt J, Friis C. 2003. Evaluation of a single dose versus a divided dose regimen of danofloxacin in treatment of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs. Res Vet Sci 74:271–277 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0034-5288(03)00029-8.
129. European Medicines Agency (EMA). 2016. Updated advice on the use of colistin products in animals within the European Union: development of resistance and possible impact on human and animal health EMA/231573/2016. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Scientific_guideline/2016/05/WC500207233.pdf.
130. Kempf I, Jouy E, Chauvin C. 2016. Colistin use and colistin resistance in bacteria from animals. Int J Antimicrob Agents 48:598–606 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.09.016. [PubMed]
131. Moodley A, Nielsen SS, Guardabassi L. 2011. Effects of tetracycline and zinc on selection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 398 in pigs. Vet Microbiol 152:420–423 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.05.025. [PubMed]
132. Slifierz MJ, Friendship R, Weese JS. 2015. Zinc oxide therapy increases prevalence and persistence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs: a randomized controlled trial. Zoonoses Public Health 62:301–308 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12150. [PubMed]
133. European Medicines Agency (EMA). 2016. Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use (CVMP) Meeting of 06-08 December 2016 EMA/CVMP/794393/2016. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Press_release/2016/12/WC500217843.pdf.
134. Madson DM, Magstadt DR, Arruda PH, Hoang H, Sun D, Bower LP, Bhandari M, Burrough ER, Gauger PC, Pillatzki AE, Stevenson GW, Wilberts BL, Brodie J, Harmon KM, Wang C, Main RG, Zhang J, Yoon KJ. 2014. Pathogenesis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus isolate (US/Iowa/18984/2013) in 3-week-old weaned pigs. Vet Microbiol 174:60–68 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.09.002.
135. Ahmad A, Zachariasen C, Christiansen LE, Græsbøll K, Toft N, Matthews L, Nielsen SS, Olsen JE. 2016. Modeling the growth dynamics of multiple Escherichia coli strains in the pig intestine following intramuscular ampicillin treatment. BMC Microbiol 16:205 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-016-0823-3. [PubMed]
136. Herrero-Fresno A, Zachariasen C, Nørholm N, Holm A, Christiansen LE, Olsen JE. 2017. Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs. Vet Microbiol 208:1–7 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.005. [PubMed]
137. Burow E, Simoneit C, Tenhagen BA, Käsbohrer A. 2014. Oral antimicrobials increase antimicrobial resistance in porcine E. coli: a systematic review. Prev Vet Med 113:364–375 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.12.007. [PubMed]
138. Larsen I, Hjulsager CK, Holm A, Olsen JE, Nielsen SS, Nielsen JP. 2016. A randomised clinical trial on the efficacy of oxytetracycline dose through water medication of nursery pigs on diarrhoea, faecal shedding of Lawsonia intracellularis and average daily weight gain. Prev Vet Med 123:52–59 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.12.004. [PubMed]
139. Zolynas R, Cao J, Simmons R. 2003. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Nuflor injectable solution (15mg/kg twice 48hours apart) in the treatment of swine respiratory disease (SRD). Proceedings of the AASV meeting, Orlando, FL, p 211–214.
140. Vilalta C, Giboin H, Schneider M, El Garch F, Fraile L. 2014. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of marbofloxacin in the treatment of Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in nursery and fattener pigs using Monte Carlo simulations. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 37:542–549 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12134. [PubMed]
141. Constable PD, Pyörälä S, Smith GW. 2008. Guidelines for antimicrobial use in cattle, p 143–160. In Guardabassi L, Jensen LB, Kruse H (ed), Guide to Antimicrobial Use in Animals. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444302639.ch9
142. American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AABP). 2013. Prudent antimicrobial use guidelines. http://www.aabp.org/about/AABP_Guidelines.asp.
143. Edwards TA. 2010. Control methods for bovine respiratory disease for feedlot cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 26:273–284 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2010.03.005. [PubMed]
144. Wittum TE, Perino LJ. 1995. Passive immune status at postpartum hour 24 and long-term health and performance of calves. Am J Vet Res 56:1149–1154. [PubMed]
145. Theurer ME, Larson RL, White BJ. 2015. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of commercially available vaccines against bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus for mitigation of bovine respiratory disease complex in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 246:126–142 http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.246.1.126. [PubMed]
146. Ellis JA. 2017. How efficacious are vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus in cattle? Vet Microbiol 206:59–68. [PubMed]
147. Murray GM, O’Neill RG, More SJ, McElroy MC, Earley B, Cassidy JP. 2016. Evolving views on bovine respiratory disease: an appraisal of selected control measures. Part 2. Vet J 217:78–82.
148. Larson RL, Step DL. 2012. Evidence-based effectiveness of vaccination against Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni in feedlot cattle for mitigating the incidence and effect of bovine respiratory disease complex. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 28:97–106 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2011.12.005. [PubMed]
149. Health BA. 2017. Zelnate 2016 1-4-2017. https://academic.oup.com/jas/article/87/10/3418/4563405
150. Keefe G. 2012. Update on control of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae for management of mastitis. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 28:203–216 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2012.03.010. [PubMed]
151. Hogan J, Smith KL. 2012. Managing environmental mastitis. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 28:217–224 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2012.03.009. [PubMed]
152. Gomes F, Henriques M. 2016. Control of bovine mastitis: old and recent therapeutic approaches. Curr Microbiol 72:377–382 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-015-0958-8. [PubMed]
153. DeDonder KD, Apley MD. 2015. A review of the expected effects of antimicrobials in bovine respiratory disease treatment and control using outcomes from published randomized clinical trials with negative controls. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 31:97–111, vi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2014.11.003. [PubMed]
154. Wileman BW, Thomson DU, Reinhardt CD, Renter DG. 2009. Analysis of modern technologies commonly used in beef cattle production: conventional beef production versus nonconventional production using meta-analysis. J Anim Sci 87:3418–3426. [PubMed]
155. González-Martín JV, Elvira L, Cerviño López M, Pérez Villalobos N, Calvo López-Guerrero E, Astiz S. 2011. Reducing antibiotic use: selective metaphylaxis with florfenicol in commercial feedlots. Livest Sci 141:173–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.05.016.
156. Scherpenzeel CG, den Uijl IE, van Schaik G, Riekerink RG, Hogeveen H, Lam TJ. 2016. Effect of different scenarios for selective dry-cow therapy on udder health, antimicrobial usage, and economics. J Dairy Sci 99:3753–3764. [PubMed]
157. Biggs A, Barrett D, Bradley A, Green M, Reyher K, Zadoks R. 2016. Antibiotic dry cow therapy: where next? Vet Rec 178:93–94. [PubMed]
158. Love WJ, Lehenbauer TW, Van Eenennaam AL, Drake CM, Kass PH, Farver TB, Aly SS. 2016. Sensitivity and specificity of on-farm scoring systems and nasal culture to detect bovine respiratory disease complex in preweaned dairy calves. J Vet Diagn Invest 28:119–128. [PubMed]
159. DeDonder K, Thomson DU, Loneragan GH, Noffsinger T, Taylor W, Apley MD. 2010. Lung auscultation and rectal temperature as a predictor of lung lesions and bovine respiratory disease treatment outcome in feedyard cattle. Bov Pract 44:146–153.
160. Rose-Dye TK, Burciaga-Robles LO, Krehbiel CR, Step DL, Fulton RW, Confer AW, Richards CJ. 2011. Rumen temperature change monitored with remote rumen temperature boluses after challenges with bovine viral diarrhea virus and Mannheimia haemolytica. J Anim Sci 89:1193–1200. [PubMed]
161. Ollivett TL, Buczinski S. 2016. On-farm use of ultrasonography for bovine respiratory disease. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 32:19–35 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2015.09.001. [PubMed]
162. White BJ, Goehl DR, Amrine DE, Booker C, Wildman B, Perrett T. 2016. Bayesian evaluation of clinical diagnostic test characteristics of visual observations and remote monitoring to diagnose bovine respiratory disease in beef calves. Prev Vet Med 126:74–80. [PubMed]
163. Wolfger B, Timsit E, White BJ, Orsel K. 2015. A systematic review of bovine respiratory disease diagnosis focused on diagnostic confirmation, early detection, and prediction of unfavorable outcomes in feedlot cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 31:351–365. [PubMed]
164. DeDonder KD, Apley MD. 2015. A literature review of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease. Anim Health Res Rev 16:125–134 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S146625231500016X. [PubMed]
165. Lubbers BV, Turnidge J. 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for bovine respiratory disease: getting more from diagnostic results. Vet J 203:149–154 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.12.009. [PubMed]
166. Wagner SA, Erskine RJ. 2013. Antimicrobial drug use in mastitis, p 519–528. In Giguère S, Prescott JF, Dowling PM, (ed), Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine. Wiley Blackwell, Ames, IA.
167. Roberson JR. 2012. Treatment of clinical mastitis. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 28:271–288 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2012.03.011. [PubMed]
168. Pinzón-Sánchez C, Ruegg PL. 2011. Risk factors associated with short-term post-treatment outcomes of clinical mastitis. J Dairy Sci 94:3397–3410 http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3925. [PubMed]
169. Barkema HW, Schukken YH, Zadoks RN. 2006. Invited review: the role of cow, pathogen, and treatment regimen in the therapeutic success of bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. J Dairy Sci 89:1877–1895 http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72256-1.
170. Kayitsinga J, Schewe RL, Contreras GA, Erskine RJ. 2016. Antimicrobial treatment of clinical mastitis in the eastern United States: the influence of dairy farmers’ mastitis management and treatment behavior and attitudes. J Dairy Sci 100(2):1388–1407. [PubMed]
171. Lago A, Godden SM, Bey R, Ruegg PL, Leslie K. 2011. The selective treatment of clinical mastitis based on on-farm culture results. I. Effects on antibiotic use, milk withholding time, and short-term clinical and bacteriological outcomes. J Dairy Sci 94:4441–4456.
172. Constable PD, Morin DE. 2003. Treatment of clinical mastitis. Using antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for treatment decisions. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 19:139–155 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0720(02)00068-3.
173. Barlow J. 2011. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 16:383–407 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10911-011-9235-z. [PubMed]
174. Hoe FG, Ruegg PL. 2005. Relationship between antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical mastitis pathogens and treatment outcome in cows. J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:1461–1468 http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.2005.227.1461.
175. Hendriksen RS, Karlsmose S, Aarestrup FM, Krogh K, Voss H. 2009. Fra gram positiv til negativ og fra kokker til stave – Sammendrag af resultaterne af årets ringtest for identifikation og resistensbestemmelse af mastitispatogener. Dansk Vettidsskr 92:28–33.
176. Koskinen MT, Holopainen J, Pyörälä S, Bredbacka P, Pitkälä A, Barkema HW, Bexiga R, Roberson J, Sølverød L, Piccinini R, Kelton D, Lehmusto H, Niskala S, Salmikivi L. 2009. Analytical specificity and sensitivity of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of bovine mastitis pathogens. J Dairy Sci 92:952–959 http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1549. [PubMed]
177. O’Connor AM, Yuan C, Cullen JN, Coetzee JF, da Silva N, Wang C. 2016. A mixed treatment meta-analysis of antibiotic treatment options for bovine respiratory disease: an update. Prev Vet Med 132:130–139. [PubMed]
178. Royster E, Wagner S. 2015. Treatment of mastitis in cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 31:17–46 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2014.11.010. [PubMed]
179. Pyörälä S. 2009. Treatment of mastitis during lactation. Ir Vet J 62(Suppl 4) :S40–S44 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2046-0481-62-S4-S40. [PubMed]
180. Nordiske Meieriorganisasjoners Samarbeidsutvalg for Mjolkekvalitetsarbeid (NMSM). 2009. Nordic guidelines for mastitis therapy. http://www.sva.se/globalassets/redesign2011/pdf/antibiotika/antibiotikaresistens/nordic-guidelines-for-mastitis-therapy.pdf.
181. Apley MD. 2015. Treatment of calves with bovine respiratory disease: duration of therapy and post-treatment intervals. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 31:441–453, vii http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2015.06.001. [PubMed]
182. Vallé M, Schneider M, Galland D, Giboin H, Woehrlé F. 2012. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic testing of marbofloxacin administered as a single injection for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 35:519–528 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2885.2011.01350.x. [PubMed]
183. Swinkels JM, Hilkens A, Zoche-Golob V, Krömker V, Buddiger M, Jansen J, Lam TJ. 2015. Social influences on the duration of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 98:2369–2380. [PubMed]
184. Swinkels JM, Cox P, Schukken YH, Lam TJ. 2013. Efficacy of extended cefquinome treatment of clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. J Dairy Sci 96:4983–4992. [PubMed]
185. Weese JS, Blondeau JM, Boothe D, Breitschwerdt EB, Guardabassi L, Hillier A, Lloyd DH, Papich MG, Rankin SC, Turnidge JD, Sykes JE. 2011. Antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of urinary tract disease in dogs and cats: antimicrobial guidelines working group of the international society for companion animal infectious diseases. Vet Med Int 2011:263768 http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/263768. [PubMed]
186. Hillier A, Lloyd DH, Weese JS, Blondeau JM, Boothe D, Breitschwerdt E, Guardabassi L, Papich MG, Rankin S, Turnidge JD, Sykes JE. 2014. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of canine superficial bacterial folliculitis (Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases). Vet Dermatol 25:163–175, e42-3.
187. Lappin MR, Blondeau J, Boothe D, Breitschwerdt EB, Guardabassi L, Lloyd DH, Papich MG, Rankin SC, Sykes JE, Turnidge J, Weese JS. 2017. Antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of respiratory tract disease in dogs and cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. J Vet Intern Med 31:279–294 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.14627. [PubMed]
188. Beco L, Guaguère E, Lorente Méndez C, Noli C, Nuttall T, Vroom M. 2013. Suggested guidelines for using systemic antimicrobials in bacterial skin infections (1): diagnosis based on clinical presentation, cytology and culture. Vet Rec 172:72–78 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.101069. [PubMed]
189. Guardabassi L, Frank L, Houser G, Papich M. 2008. Guidelines for antimicrobial use in dogs and cats, p 183–206. In Guardabassi L, Jensen LB, Kruse H (ed), Guide to Antimicrobial use in Animals. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444302639.
190. Danish Small Animal Veterinary Association (SvHKS). 2013. Antibiotic use guidelines for companion animal practice. https://www.ddd.dk/sektioner/hundkatsmaedyr/antibiotikavejledning/Documents/AntibioticGuidelines.pdf.
191. Swedish Veterinary Association. 2009. Guidelines for the clinical use of antibiotics in the treatment of dogs and cats. http://www.svf.se/Documents/S%C3%A4llskapet/Sm%C3%A5djurssektionen/Policy%20ab%20english%2010b.pdf.
192. Guardabassi L, Prescott JF. 2015. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice: from theory to practice. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 45:361–376, vii http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2014.11.005. [PubMed]
193. Weese JS. 2006. Investigation of antimicrobial use and the impact of antimicrobial use guidelines in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital: 1995-2004. J Am Vet Med Assoc 228:553–558 http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.228.4.553. [PubMed]
194. Hughes LA, Williams N, Clegg P, Callaby R, Nuttall T, Coyne K, Pinchbeck G, Dawson S. 2012. Cross-sectional survey of antimicrobial prescribing patterns in UK small animal veterinary practice. Prev Vet Med 104:309–316 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.12.003. [PubMed]
195. Stull JW, Weese JS. 2015. Infection control in veterinary small animal practice. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 45:xi–xii Infection control in veterinary small animal practice. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2014.12.001. [PubMed]
196. Rantala M, Hölsö K, Lillas A, Huovinen P, Kaartinen L. 2004. Survey of condition-based prescribing of antimicrobial drugs for dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital. Vet Rec 155:259–262 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.155.9.259. [PubMed]
197. Escher M, Vanni M, Intorre L, Caprioli A, Tognetti R, Scavia G. 2011. Use of antimicrobials in companion animal practice: a retrospective study in a veterinary teaching hospital in Italy. J Antimicrob Chemother 66:920–927 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkq543. [PubMed]
198. Mueller RS, Bergvall K, Bensignor E, Bond R. 2012. A review of topical therapy for skin infections with bacteria and yeast. Vet Dermatol 23:330–341 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3164.2012.01057.x. [PubMed]
199. Borio S, Colombo S, La Rosa G, De Lucia M, Damborg P, Guardabassi L. 2015. Effectiveness of a combined (4% chlorhexidine digluconate shampoo and solution) protocol in MRS and non-MRS canine superficial pyoderma: a randomized, blinded, antibiotic-controlled study. Vet Dermatol 26:339–344, e72 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12233.
200. Summers JF, Hendricks A, Brodbelt DC. 2014. Prescribing practices of primary-care veterinary practitioners in dogs diagnosed with bacterial pyoderma. BMC Vet Res 10:240 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-014-0240-5. [PubMed]
201. Watson AD, Maddison JE. 2001. Systemic antibacterial drug use in dogs in Australia. Aust Vet J 79:740–746 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2001.tb10888.x.
202. Mateus AL, Brodbelt DC, Barber N, Stärk KD. 2014. Qualitative study of factors associated with antimicrobial usage in seven small animal veterinary practices in the UK. Prev Vet Med 117:68–78 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.05.007. [PubMed]
203. Unterer S, Strohmeyer K, Kruse BD, Sauter-Louis C, Hartmann K. 2011. Treatment of aseptic dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid: a prospective blinded study. J Vet Intern Med 25:973–979 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00765.x. [PubMed]
204. Cai T, Nesi G, Mazzoli S, Meacci F, Lanzafame P, Caciagli P, Mereu L, Tateo S, Malossini G, Selli C, Bartoletti R. 2015. Asymptomatic bacteriuria treatment is associated with a higher prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains in women with urinary tract infections. Clin Infect Dis 61:1655–1661.
205. Weese JS, Joe Blondeau, Boothe D, Guardabassi L, Gumley N, Lappin M, Papich M, Rankin S, Sykes J, Westropp J. 2016. Guidelines for management of urinary tract infections in dogs and cats. American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, Denver, CO, 10 June 2016.
206. Murphy CP, Reid-Smith RJ, Boerlin P, Weese JS, Prescott JF, Janecko N, McEwen SA. 2012. Out-patient antimicrobial drug use in dogs and cats for new disease events from community companion animal practices in Ontario. Can Vet J 53:291–298. [PubMed]
207. Robinson NJ, Dean RS, Cobb M, Brennan ML. 2016. Factors influencing common diagnoses made during first-opinion small-animal consultations in the United Kingdom. Prev Vet Med 131:87–94 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.07.014. [PubMed]
208. Trott DJ, Filippich LJ, Bensink JC, Downs MT, McKenzie SE, Townsend KM, Moss SM, Chin JJ. 2004. Canine model for investigating the impact of oral enrofloxacin on commensal coliforms and colonization with multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli. J Med Microbiol 53:439–443 http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.05473-0. [PubMed]
209. Lawrence M, Kukanich K, Kukanich B, Heinrich E, Coetzee JF, Grauer G, Narayanan S. 2013. Effect of cefovecin on the fecal flora of healthy dogs. Vet J 198:259–266 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.04.010. [PubMed]
210. Ding Y, Jia YY, Li F, Liu WX, Lu CT, Zhu YR, Yang J, Ding LK, Yang L, Wen AD. 2012. The effect of staggered administration of zinc sulfate on the pharmacokinetics of oral cephalexin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 73:422–427 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.04098.x. [PubMed]
211. Papich MG, Davis JL, Floerchinger AM. 2010. Pharmacokinetics, protein binding, and tissue distribution of orally administered cefpodoxime proxetil and cephalexin in dogs. Am J Vet Res 71:1484–1491 http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.71.12.1484. [PubMed]
212. British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA). 2015. British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) Guideline on Companion Animals. https://www.bsava.com/Resources/Veterinary-resources/Medicines-Guide.
213. Mouton JW, Ambrose PG, Canton R, Drusano GL, Harbarth S, MacGowan A, Theuretzbacher U, Turnidge J. 2011. Conserving antibiotics for the future: new ways to use old and new drugs from a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic perspective. Drug Resist Updat 14:107–117 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drup.2011.02.005. [PubMed]
214. Stein GE, Schooley SL, Nicolau DP. 2008. Urinary bactericidal activity of single doses (250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg) of levofloxacin against fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Escherichia coli. Int J Antimicrob Agents 32:320–325 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.04.025. [PubMed]
215. Katz DE, Lindfield KC, Steenbergen JN, Benziger DP, Blackerby KJ, Knapp AG, Martone WJ. 2008. A pilot study of high-dose short duration daptomycin for the treatment of patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Int J Clin Pract 62:1455–1464 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01854.x. [PubMed]
216. Levison ME, Levison JH. 2009. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibacterial agents. Infect Dis Clin North Am 23:791–815, vii http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2009.06.008. [PubMed]
217. Toutain PL, Bousquet-Mélou A, Martinez M. 2007. AUC/MIC: a PK/PD index for antibiotics with a time dimension or simply a dimensionless scoring factor? J Antimicrob Chemother 60:1185–1188 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkm360. [PubMed]
218. Awji EG, Tassew DD, Lee JS, Lee SJ, Choi MJ, Reza MA, Rhee MH, Kim TH, Park SC. 2012. Comparative mutant prevention concentration and mechanism of resistance to veterinary fluoroquinolones in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Vet Dermatol 23:376–380, e68-9 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3164.2012.01038.x.
219. Drlica K, Zhao X, Blondeau JM, Hesje C. 2006. Low correlation between MIC and mutant prevention concentration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:403–404 Low correlation between MIC and mutant prevention concentration. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.50.1.403-404.2006. [PubMed]
220. Wetzstein HG. 2005. Comparative mutant prevention concentrations of pradofloxacin and other veterinary fluoroquinolones indicate differing potentials in preventing selection of resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:4166–4173 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.49.10.4166-4173.2005. [PubMed]
221. Gugel J, Dos Santos Pereira A, Pignatari AC, Gales AC. 2006. beta-Lactam MICs correlate poorly with mutant prevention concentrations for clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2276–2277 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00144-06. [PubMed]
222. Falagas ME, Bliziotis IA, Rafailidis PI. 2007. Do high doses of quinolones decrease the emergence of antibacterial resistance? A systematic review of data from comparative clinical trials. J Infect 55:97–105 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2007.03.003. [PubMed]
223. Craig WA. 2007. Pharmacodynamics of antimicrobials: general concepts and applications, p 1-19. In Nightingale CH, Ambrose PG Drusano GL, Murakawa K (ed), Antimicrobials Pharmacodynamics in Theory and in Clinical Practices, 2nd ed. Informa Healthcare, New York, NY.
224. Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, Dellinger EP, Goldstein EJ, Gorbach SL, Hirschmann JV, Kaplan SL, Montoya JG, Wade JC. 2014. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014 update by the infectious diseases society of America. Clin Infect Dis 59:147–159 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu444.
225. Gonzalez D, Delmore P, Bloom BT, Cotten CM, Poindexter BB, McGowan E, Shattuck K, Bradford KK, Smith PB, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Morris M, Yin W, Benjamin DK Jr, Laughon MM. 2016. Clindamycin pharmacokinetics and safety in preterm and term infants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60:2888–2894 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.03086-15. [PubMed]
226. Batzias GC, Delis GA, Athanasiou LV. 2005. Clindamycin bioavailability and pharmacokinetics following oral administration of clindamycin hydrochloride capsules in dogs. Vet J 170:339–345 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2004.06.007. [PubMed]
227. Clare S, Hartmann FA, Jooss M, Bachar E, Wong YY, Trepanier LA, Viviano KR. 2014. Short- and long-term cure rates of short-duration trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment in female dogs with uncomplicated bacterial cystitis. J Vet Intern Med 28:818–826 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.12324. [PubMed]
228. Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, Wullt B, Colgan R, Miller LG, Moran GJ, Nicolle LE, Raz R, Schaeffer AJ, Soper DE. 2011. Infectious Diseases Society of America.; European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: a 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis 52:e103-20. [PubMed]
229. Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, Dellinger EP, Goldstein EJ, Gorbach SL, Hirschmann JV, Kaplan SL, Montoya JG, Wade JC; Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2014. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 59:e10-52.
230. Bowen M. 2013. Antimicrobial stewardship: time for change. Equine Vet J 45:127–129 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.12041. [PubMed]
231. Haggett EF. 2014. Antimicrobial use in foals: do we need to change how we think? Equine Vet J 46:137–138 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.12178. [PubMed]
232. Weese JS. 2015. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in horses. Equine Vet J 47:747–749 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.12469. [PubMed]
233. Weese SJ, Baptiste KE, Baverud V, Toutain PL. 2008. Guidelines for antimicrobial use in horses, p 161–182. In Guardabassi L, Jensen LB, Kruse H (ed), Guide to Antimicrobial use in Animals. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444302639.ch10.
234. Hughes LA, Pinchbeck G, Callaby R, Dawson S, Clegg P, Williams N. 2013. Antimicrobial prescribing practice in UK equine veterinary practice. Equine Vet J 45:141–147 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2012.00602.x. [PubMed]
235. Schwechler J, van den Hoven R, Schoster A. 2016. Antimicrobial prescribing practices by Swiss, German and Austrian equine practitioners. Vet Rec 178:216 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.103438. [PubMed]
236. Maher MC, Schnabel LV, Cross JA, Papich MG, Divers TJ, Fortier LA. 2014. Plasma and synovial fluid concentration of doxycycline following low-dose, low-frequency administration, and resultant inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-13 from interleukin-stimulated equine synoviocytes. Equine Vet J 46:198–202 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.12139. [PubMed]
237. Cribb NC, Bouré LP, Hanna WJ, Akens MK, Mattson SE, Monteith GJ, Weese JS. 2009. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of ferric-hyaluronate implants for delivery of amikacin sulfate to the tarsocrural joint of horses. Vet Surg 38:498–505 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.2009.00518.x. [PubMed]
238. Harvey A, Kilcoyne I, Byrne BA, Nieto J. 2016. Effect of dose on intra-articular amikacin sulfate concentrations following intravenous regional limb perfusion in horses. Vet Surg 45:1077–1082 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.12564. [PubMed]
239. Newman JC, Prange T, Jennings S, Barlow BM, Davis JL. 2013. Pharmacokinetics of tobramycin following intravenous, intramuscular, and intra-articular administration in healthy horses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 36:532–541 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12048. [PubMed]
240. Weese JS, Sabino C. 2005. Scrutiny of antimicrobial use in racing horses with allergic small airway inflammatory disease. Can Vet J 46:438–439. [PubMed]
241. Wohlfender FD, Barrelet FE, Doherr MG, Straub R, Meier HP. 2009. Diseases in neonatal foals. Part 1: the 30 day incidence of disease and the effect of prophylactic antimicrobial drug treatment during the first three days post partum. Equine Vet J 41:179–185 http://dx.doi.org/10.2746/042516408X345116. [PubMed]
242. Arboleya S, Sánchez B, Milani C, Duranti S, Solís G, Fernández N, de los Reyes-Gavilán CG, Ventura M, Margolles A, Gueimonde M. 2015. Intestinal microbiota development in preterm neonates and effect of perinatal antibiotics. J Pediatr 166:538–544 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.09.041. [PubMed]
243. Greenwood C, Morrow AL, Lagomarcino AJ, Altaye M, Taft DH, Yu Z, Newburg DS, Ward DV, Schibler KR. 2014. Early empiric antibiotic use in preterm infants is associated with lower bacterial diversity and higher relative abundance of Enterobacter. J Pediatr 165:23–29 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.01.010. [PubMed]
244. Bert JM, Giannini D, Nace L. 2007. Antibiotic prophylaxis for arthroscopy of the knee: is it necessary? Arthroscopy 23:4–6 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2006.08.014. [PubMed]
245. Wieck JA, Jackson JK, O’Brien TJ, Lurate RB, Russell JM, Dorchak JD. 1997. Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery. Orthopedics 20:133–134. [PubMed]
246. Weese JS, Cruz A. 2009. Retrospective study of perioperative antimicrobial use practices in horses undergoing elective arthroscopic surgery at a veterinary teaching hospital. Can Vet J 50:185–188. [PubMed]
247. Schneider RK, Bramlage LR, Moore RM, Mecklenburg LM, Kohn CW, Gabel AA. 1992. A retrospective study of 192 horses affected with septic arthritis/tenosynovitis. Equine Vet J 24:436–442 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1992.tb02873.x. [PubMed]
248. Giguère S, Prescott JF. 1997. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Rhodococcus equi infections in foals. Vet Microbiol 56:313–334 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1135(97)00099-0.
249. Giguère S, Cohen ND, Chaffin MK, Slovis NM, Hondalus MK, Hines SA, Prescott JF. 2011. Diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of infections caused by Rhodococcus equi in foals. J Vet Intern Med 25:1209–1220 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00835.x. [PubMed]
250. Ross SE, Duz M, Rendle DI. 2016. Antimicrobial selection and dosing in the treatment of wounds in the United Kingdom. Equine Vet J 48:676–680 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.12535. [PubMed]
251. Orsini JA, Snooks-Parsons C, Stine L, Haddock M, Ramberg CF, Benson CE, Nunamaker DM. 2005. Vancomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal and enterococcal infections in 15 horses. Can J Vet Res 69:278–286. [PubMed]
252. Wagner EL, Tyler PJ. 2011. A comparison of weight estimation methods in adult horses. J Equine Vet Sci 31:706–710 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2011.05.002.
253. Carroll CL, Huntington PJ. 1988. Body condition scoring and weight estimation of horses. Equine Vet J 20:41–45 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1988.tb01451.x.
254. Dallap Schaer BL, Linton JK, Aceto H. 2012. Antimicrobial use in horses undergoing colic surgery. J Vet Intern Med 26:1449–1456 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.01024.x. [PubMed]
255. Wolfger B, Manns B, Barkema HW, Schwartzkopf-Genswein KSG, Dorin C, Orsel K. 2015. Evaluating the cost implications of radio frequency identification feeding system for early detection of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle. Prev Vet Med 118:285–292. [PubMed]
256. Maselyne J, Adriaens I, Huybrechts T, De Ketelaere B, Millet S, Vangeyte J, Van Nuffel A, Saeys W. 2016. Measuring the drinking behaviour of individual pigs housed in group using radio frequency identification (RFID). Animal 10:1557–1566 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731115000774. [PubMed]
257. Berckmans D. 2014. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems. Rev Sci Tech 33:189–196. [PubMed]
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0018-2017
2018-06-21
2019-08-24

Abstract:

Optimization of antimicrobial treatment is a cornerstone in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Various national and international authorities and professional veterinary and farming associations have released generic guidelines on prudent antimicrobial use in animals. However, these generic guidelines need to be translated into a set of animal species- and disease-specific practice recommendations. This article focuses on prevention of antimicrobial resistance and its complex relationship with treatment efficacy, highlighting key situations where the current antimicrobial drug products, treatment recommendations, and practices may be insufficient to minimize antimicrobial selection. The authors address this topic using a multidisciplinary approach involving microbiology, pharmacology, clinical medicine, and animal husbandry. In the first part of the article, we define four key targets for implementing the concept of optimal antimicrobial treatment in veterinary practice: (i) reduction of overall antimicrobial consumption, (ii) improved use of diagnostic testing, (iii) prudent use of second-line, critically important antimicrobials, and (iv) optimization of dosage regimens. In the second part, we provided practice recommendations for achieving these four targets, with reference to specific conditions that account for most antimicrobial use in pigs (intestinal and respiratory disease), cattle (respiratory disease and mastitis), dogs and cats (skin, intestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory disease), and horses (upper respiratory disease, neonatal foal care, and surgical infections). Lastly, we present perspectives on the education and research needs for improving antimicrobial use in the future.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

A logical thinking process to enable antimicrobial stewardship across all animal species and therapeutic challenges. This logical process requires (1) veterinary guidance in constructing case definitions and validating the definitions through caretaker training and diagnostics, (2) consideration of possible alternatives to prevent, control, or treat the bacterial disease, (3) choice of a first-line agent for empiric treatment if there are no alternatives to antimicrobials, and (4) safe and effective usage of the selected agent. During the time of antimicrobial use, it is appropriate to constantly evaluate if the disease challenge is still present according to the definitions established in step 1 above. If not, stop the antimicrobial use and monitor according to these definitions and diagnostics. If the challenge is still present, constantly evaluate step 2.

Source: microbiolspec June 2018 vol. 6 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0018-2017
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Mutant selection window and mutant prevention concentration (MPC). Optimal dosage regimens should maintain as long as possible the drug concentration at or above the MPC (blue area), which reflects the highest possible MIC of the resistant mutants (red bacteria). The minimum amount of time required to prevent selection of the resistant mutants can be estimated for each species by using a specific PK/PD index (T > MPC or AUC/MPC). The mutant selective window delimitates the range of antimicrobial concentrations selecting for the resistant mutants, which range from the MPC (upper horizontal red line) to the MIC (lower horizontal green line) of the initial (wild-type) bacterial population (green bacteria). Drug concentrations below the MIC inhibit neither the mutants nor the wild-type population. Abbreviations: T, drug concentration time; AUC, area under the concentration-time curve, C max, maximum drug concentration; C min, minimum drug concentration.

Source: microbiolspec June 2018 vol. 6 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0018-2017
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error