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Human Papillomavirus

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  • Authors: Eileen M. Burd1,2, Christina L. Dean3
  • Editors: Randall T. Hayden4, Donna M. Wolk5, Karen C. Carroll6, Yi-Wei Tang7
    Affiliations: 1: Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322; 2: Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30322; 3: Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322; 4: St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN; 5: Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA; 6: Johns Hopkins University Hospital, Baltimore, MD; 7: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY
  • Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015
  • Received 02 March 2015 Accepted 08 February 2016 Published 15 July 2016
  • Eileen M. Burd, [email protected]
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  • Abstract:

    Individuals with inherited immunodeficiencies, autoimmune disorders, organ or bone marrow transplantation, or infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk of infection with both low-risk and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Chronic immunosuppression provides an environment for persistent HPV infection which carries a higher risk of malignant transformation. Screening guidelines have been developed or advocated for processes that have detectable premalignant lesions, such as anal cancer or cervical cancer. For other anatomic locations, such as cutaneous, penile, and oropharyngeal, a biopsy of suspicious lesions is necessary for diagnosis. HPV cannot be cultured from clinical specimens in the laboratory, and diagnosis relies on cytologic, histologic, or molecular methods.

  • Citation: Burd E, Dean C. 2016. Human Papillomavirus. Microbiol Spectrum 4(4):DMIH2-0001-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015.


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Individuals with inherited immunodeficiencies, autoimmune disorders, organ or bone marrow transplantation, or infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk of infection with both low-risk and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Chronic immunosuppression provides an environment for persistent HPV infection which carries a higher risk of malignant transformation. Screening guidelines have been developed or advocated for processes that have detectable premalignant lesions, such as anal cancer or cervical cancer. For other anatomic locations, such as cutaneous, penile, and oropharyngeal, a biopsy of suspicious lesions is necessary for diagnosis. HPV cannot be cultured from clinical specimens in the laboratory, and diagnosis relies on cytologic, histologic, or molecular methods.

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Algorithm for diagnosis of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015
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Algorithm for screening and diagnosis of anal cancer in high-risk groups. There are currently no formal recommendations for routine anal cancer screening in the United States.

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015
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Algorithm for screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer in immunosuppressed women. For HIV-infected women ( 90 ), screen at 6 months, 12 months, then annually; consider screening within 1 year of onset of sexual activity ( 92 ); some experts would recommend continued cytology screening every 6 months in women with CD4 counts less than 200/mm or a history of HPV infection. For immunosuppressed women without HIV, annual cervical cytology screening is recommended ( 90 ).

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015
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Cytological and histological classification of anal dysplasia and cervical dysplasia

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015
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Cervical cancer screening guidelines

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015
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Role for HPV testing in HIV-infected women ( 119 )

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015

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