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RNA Interference in Fungi: Retention and Loss

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  • Authors: Francisco E. Nicolás1, Victoriano Garre2
  • Editor: Joseph Heitman3
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain; 2: Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain; 3: Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710
  • Source: microbiolspec November 2016 vol. 4 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0008-2016
  • Received 20 April 2016 Accepted 07 August 2016 Published 18 November 2016
  • Victoriano Garre, [email protected]
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  • Abstract:

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism conserved in eukaryotes, including fungi, that represses gene expression by means of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) of about 20 to 30 nucleotides. Its discovery is one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the past 20 years, and it has revolutionized our perception of the functioning of the cell. Initially described and characterized in , the RNAi is widespread in fungi, suggesting that it plays important functions in the fungal kingdom. Several RNAi-related mechanisms for maintenance of genome integrity, particularly protection against exogenous nucleic acids such as mobile elements, have been described in several fungi, suggesting that this is the main function of RNAi in the fungal kingdom. However, an increasing number of fungal sRNAs with regulatory functions generated by specific RNAi pathways have been identified. Several mechanistic aspects of the biogenesis of these sRNAs are known, but their function in fungal development and physiology is scarce, except for remarkable examples such as , in which specific sRNAs clearly regulate responses to environmental and endogenous signals. Despite the retention of RNAi in most species, some fungal groups and species lack an active RNAi mechanism, suggesting that its loss may provide some selective advantage. This article summarizes the current understanding of RNAi functions in the fungal kingdom.

  • Citation: Nicolás F, Garre V. 2016. RNA Interference in Fungi: Retention and Loss. Microbiol Spectrum 4(6):FUNK-0008-2016. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0008-2016.


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RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism conserved in eukaryotes, including fungi, that represses gene expression by means of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) of about 20 to 30 nucleotides. Its discovery is one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the past 20 years, and it has revolutionized our perception of the functioning of the cell. Initially described and characterized in , the RNAi is widespread in fungi, suggesting that it plays important functions in the fungal kingdom. Several RNAi-related mechanisms for maintenance of genome integrity, particularly protection against exogenous nucleic acids such as mobile elements, have been described in several fungi, suggesting that this is the main function of RNAi in the fungal kingdom. However, an increasing number of fungal sRNAs with regulatory functions generated by specific RNAi pathways have been identified. Several mechanistic aspects of the biogenesis of these sRNAs are known, but their function in fungal development and physiology is scarce, except for remarkable examples such as , in which specific sRNAs clearly regulate responses to environmental and endogenous signals. Despite the retention of RNAi in most species, some fungal groups and species lack an active RNAi mechanism, suggesting that its loss may provide some selective advantage. This article summarizes the current understanding of RNAi functions in the fungal kingdom.

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Main RNA interference (RNAi) pathways identified in . Fungal RNAi-mediated defense mechanisms against exogenous nucleic acids in fungi is exemplified by the defense mechanism (left box). This fungus shows an amplification step mediated by RdRP-2, which has not been found in other fungi. In addition to this defense pathway, this fungus shows two distinct RNAi pathways to regulate the expression of endogenous genes (central and right boxes). Question marks indicate that the R3B2 protein participates in these pathways, although its precise function is unknown.

Source: microbiolspec November 2016 vol. 4 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0008-2016
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