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Group B ()

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  • Authors: Vanessa N. Raabe1,2, Andi L. Shane3
  • Editors: Vincent A. Fischetti4, Richard P. Novick5, Joseph J. Ferretti6, Daniel A. Portnoy7, Julian I. Rood8
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Division of Infectious Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur, GA 30030; 2: Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine and Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30322; 3: Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine and Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30322; 4: The Rockefeller University, New York, NY; 5: Skirball Institute for Molecular Medicine, NYU Medical Center, New York, NY; 6: Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, OK; 7: Department of Molecular and Cellular Microbiology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA; 8: Australian Bacterial Pathogen Program, Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
  • Source: microbiolspec March 2019 vol. 7 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3-0007-2018
  • Received 19 March 2018 Accepted 23 March 2018 Published 22 March 2019
  • Vanessa N. Raabe, [email protected]
image of Group B <span class="jp-italic">Streptococcus</span> (<span class="jp-italic">Streptococcus agalactiae</span>)
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  • Abstract:

    Invasive disease due to group B infection () results in a wide spectrum of clinical disease. In North America, serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V are most frequently associated with invasive disease. Group B remains a continuing source of morbidity and mortality in high-risk populations, including pregnant women, neonates, and the elderly; an increasing incidence of invasive disease has been observed in nonpregnant adults. Group B remains the most common culture-confirmed neonatal bacterial infection in the United States and is a significant source of neonatal morbidity globally. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has reduced the incidence of early-onset neonatal disease without a notable impact on the incidence of late-onset neonatal disease. Penicillin G remains the mainstay of therapy, although reduced penicillin susceptibility has been observed in select isolates. Increased frequency of resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics, including clindamycin, erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, has been observed, with some isolates demonstrating resistance to vancomycin. The development and implementation of strategies to identify hosts, treat judiciously with antimicrobials with the narrowest spectra, and prevent invasive disease, with vaccines, are essential to reduce the burden of group B disease.

  • Citation: Raabe V, Shane A. 2019. Group B (). Microbiol Spectrum 7(2):GPP3-0007-2018. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3-0007-2018.

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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3-0007-2018
2019-03-22
2019-10-23

Abstract:

Invasive disease due to group B infection () results in a wide spectrum of clinical disease. In North America, serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V are most frequently associated with invasive disease. Group B remains a continuing source of morbidity and mortality in high-risk populations, including pregnant women, neonates, and the elderly; an increasing incidence of invasive disease has been observed in nonpregnant adults. Group B remains the most common culture-confirmed neonatal bacterial infection in the United States and is a significant source of neonatal morbidity globally. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has reduced the incidence of early-onset neonatal disease without a notable impact on the incidence of late-onset neonatal disease. Penicillin G remains the mainstay of therapy, although reduced penicillin susceptibility has been observed in select isolates. Increased frequency of resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics, including clindamycin, erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, has been observed, with some isolates demonstrating resistance to vancomycin. The development and implementation of strategies to identify hosts, treat judiciously with antimicrobials with the narrowest spectra, and prevent invasive disease, with vaccines, are essential to reduce the burden of group B disease.

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

colonization rates in pregnant women.

Source: microbiolspec March 2019 vol. 7 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3-0007-2018
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Invasive group B disease and mortality in nonpregnant adults, United States, 2015. Incidence shown in blue; mortality shown in orange.

Source: microbiolspec March 2019 vol. 7 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3-0007-2018
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FIGURE 3

Incidence of invasive group B disease in neonates, United States, 1997 to 2015.

Source: microbiolspec March 2019 vol. 7 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3-0007-2018
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