No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

Emerging Foodborne and Agriculture-Related Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
  • XML
    147.08 Kb
  • HTML
    152.79 Kb
  • PDF
    912.47 Kb
  • Author: David H. Kingsley1
  • Editors: Kalmia Kniel2, Siddhartha Thakur3
    Affiliations: 1: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Food Safety and Interventions Research Unit, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901; 2: Department of Animal and Food Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE; 3: North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC
  • Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0007-2014
  • Received 03 November 2014 Accepted 04 December 2015 Published 19 August 2016
  • David H. Kingsley, [email protected]
image of Emerging Foodborne and Agriculture-Related Viruses
    Preview this microbiology spectrum article:
    Zoom in

    Emerging Foodborne and Agriculture-Related Viruses, Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/4/4/PFS-0007-2014-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/4/4/PFS-0007-2014-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Transmission pathways by which foodborne viruses may enter human populations and evolutionary mechanisms by which viruses can become virulent are discussed in this chapter. A majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as domestic animals and livestock. Viruses that are known foodborne threats include hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, and astroviruses, among others. Viruses may potentially evolve and emerge as a result of modern agricultural practices which can concentrate livestock and bring them into contact with wild animals. Examples of viruses that have emerged in this manner are influenza, coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, and the Nipah virus. The role of bats, bush meat, rodents, pigs, cattle, and poultry as reservoirs from which infectious pathogenic viruses emerge are discussed.

  • Citation: Kingsley D. 2016. Emerging Foodborne and Agriculture-Related Viruses. Microbiol Spectrum 4(4):PFS-0007-2014. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0007-2014.


1. Brown C. 2004. Emerging zoonoses and pathogens of public health significance: an overview. Rev Sci Tech 23:435–442. [PubMed][CrossRef]
2. Morse SS. 2004. Factors and determinants of disease emergence. Rev Sci Tech 23:443–451. [PubMed][CrossRef]
3. Pearce-Duvet JMC. 2006. The origin of human pathogens: evaluating the role of agriculture and domestic animals in the evolution of human disease. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 81:369–382. [PubMed][CrossRef]
4. Newell DG, Koopmans M, Verhoef L, Duizer E, Aidara-Kane A, Sprong H, Opsteegh M, Langelaar M, Threfall J, Scheutz F, van der Giessen J, Kruse H. 2010. Foodborne diseases: the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge. Int J Food Microbiol 139(Suppl 1) :S3–S15. [PubMed][CrossRef]
5. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffin PM, Tauxe RV. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 5:607–625. [PubMed][CrossRef]
6. Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy SL, Jones JL, Griffin PM. 2011. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States: major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis 17:7–15. [PubMed][CrossRef]
7. Trepo C. 2014. A brief history of hepatitis milestones. Liver Int 34(Suppl 1) :29–37. [PubMed][CrossRef]
8. Bergh O, Børsheim KY, Bratbak G, Heldal M. 1989. High abundance of viruses found in aquatic environments. Nature 340:467–468. [PubMed][CrossRef]
9. Oostra M, de Haan CA, Rottier PJ. 2007. The 29-nucleotide deletion present in human but not in animal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses disrupts the functional expression of open reading frame 8. J Virol 81:13876–13888. [PubMed][CrossRef]
10. Kugelman JR, Johnston SC, Mulembakani PM, Kisalu N, Lee MS, Koroleva G, McCarthy SE, Gestole MC, Wolfe ND, Fair JN, Schneider BS, Wright LL, Huggins J, Whitehouse CA, Wemakoy EO, Muyembe-Tamfum JJ, Hensley LE, Palacios GF, Rimoin AW. 2014. Genomic variability of monkeypox virus among humans, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis 20:232–239. [PubMed][CrossRef]
11. Bengis RG, Leighton FA, Fischer JR, Artois M, Mörner T, Tate CM. 2004. The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Rev Sci Tech 23:497–511. [PubMed]
12. Woolhouse ME. 2002. Population biology of emerging and re-emerging pathogens. Trends Microbiol 10(Suppl) :S3–S7. [PubMed][CrossRef]
13. Levinson J, Bogich TL, Olival KJ, Epstein JH, Johnson CK, Karesh W, Daszak P. 2013. Targeting surveillance for zoonotic virus discovery. Emerg Infect Dis 19:743–747. [PubMed][CrossRef]
14. Field HE. 2009. Bats and emerging zoonoses: henipaviruses and SARS. Zoonoses Public Health 56:278–284. [PubMed][CrossRef]
15. Parrish CR, Holmes EC, Morens DM, Park EC, Burke DS, Calisher CH, Laughlin CA, Saif LJ, Daszak P. 2008. Cross-species virus transmission and the emergence of new epidemic diseases. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 72:457–470. [PubMed][CrossRef]
16. Longdon B, Hadfield JD, Webster CL, Obbard DJ, Jiggins FM. 2011. Host phylogeny determines viral persistence and replication in novel hosts. PLoS Pathog 7:e1002260. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002260. [PubMed][CrossRef]
17. Bergelson JM, Cunningham JA, Droguett G, Kurt-Jones EA, Krithivas A, Hong JS, Horwitz MS, Crowell RL, Finberg RW. 1997. Isolation of a common receptor for coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses 2 and 5. Science 275:1320–1323. [PubMed][CrossRef]
18. Cutler SJ, Fooks AR, van der Poel WHM. 2010. Public health threat of new, reemerging, and neglected zoonoses in the industrialized world. Emerg Infect Dis 16:1–7. [PubMed][CrossRef]
19. Purcell RH, Engle RE, Rood MP, Kabrane-Lazizi Y, Nguyen HT, Govindarajan S, St Claire M, Emerson SU. 2011. Hepatitis E virus in rats, Los Angeles, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 17:2216–2222. [PubMed][CrossRef]
20. Huang S-J, Liu X-H, Zhang J, Ng M-H. 2014. Protective immunity against HEV. Curr Opin Virol 5:1–6. [PubMed][CrossRef]
21. Labrique AB, Kuniholm MH, Nelson KE. 2010. The global impact of hepatitis E virus: new horizons for an emerging virus, p 53–93. In Scheld WM, Murray BE, Hughes JM (ed), Emerging Infections, 9th ed. ASM press, Washington, DC. [CrossRef]
22. Arankalle VA, Joshi MV, Kulkarni AM, Gandhe SS, Chobe LP, Rautmare SS, Mishra AC, Padbidri VS. 2001. Prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies in different Indian animal species. J Viral Hepat 8:223–227. [PubMed][CrossRef]
23. Kuniholm MH, Purcell RH, McQuillan GM, Engle RE, Wasley A, Nelson KE. 2009. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in the United States: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. J Infect Dis 200:48–56. [PubMed][CrossRef]
24. Tei S, Kitajima N, Takahashi K, Mishiro S. 2003. Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus from deer to human beings. Lancet 362:371–373. [PubMed][CrossRef]
25. Tamada Y, Yano K, Yatsuhashi H, Inoue O, Mawatari F, Ishibashi H. 2004. Consumption of wild boar linked to cases of hepatitis E. J Hepatol 40:869–870. [PubMed][CrossRef]
26. Feagins AR, Opriessnig T, Guenette DK, Halbur PG, Meng XJ. 2007. Detection and characterization of infectious hepatitis E virus from commercial pig livers sold in local grocery stores in the USA. J Gen Virol 88:912–917. [PubMed][CrossRef]
27. Berto A, Grierson S, Hakze-van der Honing R, Martelli F, Johne R, Reetz J, Ulrich RG, Pavio N, Van der Poel WHM, Banks M. 2013. Hepatitis E virus in pork liver sausage, France. Emerg Infect Dis 19:264–266. [PubMed][CrossRef]
28. Lara J, Purdy MA, Khudyakov YE. 2014. Genetic host specificity of hepatitis E virus. Infect Genet Evol 24:127–139. [PubMed][CrossRef]
29. Hudopisk N, Korva M, Janet E, Simetinger M, Grgič-Vitek M, Gubenšek J, Natek V, Kraigher A, Strle F, Avšič-Županc T. 2013. Tick-borne encephalitis associated with consumption of raw goat milk, Slovenia, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis 19:806–808. [PubMed][CrossRef]
30. Holzmann H, Aberle SW, Stiasny K, Werner P, Mischak A, Zainer B, Netzer M, Koppi S, Bechter E, Heinz FX. 2009. Tick-borne encephalitis from eating goat cheese in a mountain region of Austria. Emerg Infect Dis 15:1671–1673. [PubMed][CrossRef]
31. Bendig JWA, O’Brien PS, Muir P, Porter HJ, Caul EO. 2001. Enterovirus sequences resembling coxsackievirus A2 detected in stool and spleen from a girl with fatal myocarditis. J Med Virol 64:482–486. [PubMed][CrossRef]
32. Kim K-S, Hufnagel G, Chapman NM, Tracy S. 2001. The group B coxsackieviruses and myocarditis. Rev Med Virol 11:355–368. [PubMed][CrossRef]
33. Legay V, Chomel JJ, Fernandez E, Lina B, Aymard M, Khalfan S. 2002. Encephalomyelitis due to human parechovirus type 1. J Clin Virol 25:193–195. [PubMed][CrossRef]
34. Ward C. 1978. Severe arrhythmias in coxsackievirus B3 myopericarditis. Arch Dis Child 53:174–176. [PubMed][CrossRef]
35. Andréoletti L, Bourlet T, Moukassa D, Rey L, Hot D, Li Y, Lambert V, Gosselin B, Mosnier JF, Stankowiak C, Wattré P. 2000. Enteroviruses can persist with or without active viral replication in cardiac tissue of patients with end-stage ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy. J Infect Dis 182:1222–1227. [PubMed][CrossRef]
36. Berger MM, Kopp N, Vital C, Redl B, Aymard M, Lina B. 2000. Detection and cellular localization of enterovirus RNA sequences in spinal cord of patients with ALS. Neurology 54:20–25. [PubMed][CrossRef]
37. Riecanský I, Schreinerová Z, Egnerová A, Petrovicová A, Bzduchová O. 1989. Incidence of coxsackie virus infection in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Cor Vasa 31:225–230. [PubMed]
38. Roivainen M, Ylipaasto P, Savolainen C, Galama J, Hovi T, Otonkoski T. 2002. Functional impairment and killing of human beta cells by enteroviruses: the capacity is shared by a wide range of serotypes, but the extent is a characteristic of individual virus strains. Diabetologia 45:693–702. [PubMed][CrossRef]
39. Yin H, Berg AK, Tuvemo T, Frisk G. 2002. Enterovirus RNA is found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a majority of type 1 diabetic children at onset. Diabetes 51:1964–1971. [PubMed][CrossRef]
40. Hyeon JY, Hwang S, Kim H, Song J, Ahn J, Kang B, Kim K, Choi W, Chung JK, Kim CH, Cho K, Jee Y, Kim J, Kim K, Kim SH, Kim MJ, Cheon DS. 2013. Accuracy of diagnostic methods and surveillance sensitivity for human enterovirus, South Korea, 1999-2011. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1268–1275. [PubMed][CrossRef]
41. Trallero G, Avellon A, Otero A, De Miguel T, Pérez C, Rabella N, Rubio G, Echevarria JE, Cabrerizo M. 2010. Enteroviruses in Spain over the decade 1998-2007: virological and epidemiological studies. J Clin Virol 47:170–176. [PubMed][CrossRef]
42. McMinn PC. 2002. An overview of the evolution of enterovirus 71 and its clinical and public health significance. FEMS Microbiol Rev 26:91–107. [PubMed][CrossRef]
43. Liu J, Xiao H, Wu Y, Liu D, Qi X, Shi Y, Gao GF. 2014. H7N9: a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus infecting humans. Curr Opin Virol 5:91–97. [PubMed][CrossRef]
44. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2011. Clusters of acute respiratory illness associated with human enterovirus 68: Asia, Europe, and United States, 2008-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60:1301–1304. [PubMed]
45. Yip CCY, Lau SKP, Woo PC, Wong SSY, Tsang THF, Lo JYC, Lam W-K, Tsang C-C, Chan K-H, Yuen K-Y. 2013. Recombinant coxsackievirus A2 and deaths of children, Hong Kong, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1285–1288. [PubMed][CrossRef]
46. Maan HS, Chowdhary R, Shakya AK, Dhole TN. 2013. Genetic variants of echovirus 13, northern India, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis 19:293–296. [PubMed][CrossRef]
47. Williams CH, Panayiotou M, Girling GD, Peard CI, Oikarinen S, Hyöty H, Stanway G. 2009. Evolution and conservation in human parechovirus genomes. J Gen Virol 90:1702–1712. [PubMed][CrossRef]
48. Yu J-M, Li X-Y, Ao Y-Y, Li LL, Liu N, Li JS, Duan ZJ. 2013. Identification of a novel picornavirus in healthy piglets and seroepidemiological evidence of its presence in humans. PLoS One 8:e70137. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070137. [PubMed][CrossRef]
49. Jones MS, Lukashov VV, Ganac RD, Schnurr DP. 2007. Discovery of a novel human picornavirus in a stool sample from a pediatric patient presenting with fever of unknown origin. J Clin Microbiol 45:2144–2150. [PubMed][CrossRef]
50. Tapparel C, Siegrist F, Petty TJ, Kaiser L. 2013. Picornavirus and enterovirus diversity with associated human diseases. Infect Genet Evol 14:282–293. [PubMed][CrossRef]
51. Khamrin P, Thongprachum A, Kikuta H, Yamamoto A, Nishimura S, Sugita K, Baba T, Kobayashi M, Okitsu S, Hayakawa S, Shimizu H, Maneekarn N, Ushijima H. 2013. Three clusters of Saffold viruses circulating in children with diarrhea in Japan. Infect Genet Evol 13:339–343. [PubMed][CrossRef]
52. Yamashita T, Sakae K, Tsuzuki H, Suzuki Y, Ishikawa N, Takeda N, Miyamura T, Yamazaki S. 1998. Complete nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of Aichi virus, a distinct member of the Picornaviridae associated with acute gastroenteritis in humans. J Virol 72:8408–8412. [PubMed]
53. Reuter G, Boros A, Pankovics P. 2011. Kobuviruses: a comprehensive review. Rev Med Virol 21:32–41. [PubMed][CrossRef]
54. Lodder WJ, Rutjes SA, Takumi K, de Roda Husman AM. 2013. Aichi virus in sewage and surface water, The Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1222–1230. [PubMed][CrossRef]
55. Li L, Victoria J, Kapoor A, Blinkova O, Wang C, Babrzadeh F, Mason CJ, Pandey P, Triki H, Bahri O, Oderinde BS, Baba MM, Bukbuk DN, Besser JM, Bartkus JM, Delwart EL. 2009. A novel picornavirus associated with gastroenteritis. J Virol 83:12002–12006. [PubMed][CrossRef]
56. Greninger AL, Runckel C, Chiu CY, Haggerty T, Parsonnet J, Ganem D, DeRisi JL. 2009. The complete genome of klassevirus: a novel picornavirus in pediatric stool. Virol J 6:82. [PubMed][CrossRef]
57. Holtz LR, Finkbeiner SR, Zhao G, Kirkwood CD, Girones R, Pipas JM, Wang D. 2009. Klassevirus 1, a previously undescribed member of the family Picornaviridae, is globally widespread. Virol J 6:86. [PubMed][CrossRef]
58. Kapoor A, Victoria J, Simmonds P, Slikas E, Chieochansin T, Naeem A, Shaukat S, Sharif S, Alam MM, Angez M, Wang C, Shafer RW, Zaidi S, Delwart E. 2008. A highly prevalent and genetically diversified Picornaviridae genus in South Asian children. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:20482–20487. [PubMed][CrossRef]
59. Kapusinszky B, Phan TG, Kapoor A, Delwart E. 2012. Genetic diversity of the genus Cosavirus in the family Picornaviridae: a new species, recombination, and 26 new genotypes. PLoS One 7:e36685. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036685. [CrossRef]
60. Allander T, Tammi MT, Eriksson M, Bjerkner A, Tiveljung-Lindell A, Andersson B. 2005. Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:12891–12896. [PubMed][CrossRef]
61. Kantola K, Hedman L, Arthur J, Alibeto A, Delwart E, Jartti T, Ruuskanen O, Hedman K, Söderlund-Venermo M. 2011. Seroepidemiology of human bocaviruses 1-4. J Infect Dis 204:1403–1412. [PubMed][CrossRef]
62. Vicente D, Cilla G, Montes M, Pérez-Yarza EG, Pérez-Trallero E. 2007. Human bocavirus, a respiratory and enteric virus. Emerg Infect Dis 13:636–637. [PubMed][CrossRef]
63. Schildgen O, Qiu J, Söderlund-Venermo M. 2012. Genomic features of the human bocaviruses. Future Virol 7:31–39. [PubMed][CrossRef]
64. Mori D, Ranawaka U, Yamada K, Rajindrajith S, Miya K, Perera HKK, Matsumoto T, Dassanayake M, Mitui MT, Mori H, Nishizono A, Söderlund-Venermo M, Ahmed K. 2013. Human bocavirus in patients with encephalitis, Sri Lanka, 2009-2010. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1859–1862. [PubMed][CrossRef]
65. Mitui MT, Tabib SM, Matsumoto T, Khanam W, Ahmed S, Mori D, Akhter N, Yamada K, Kabir L, Nishizono A, Söderlund-Venermo M, Ahmed K. 2012. Detection of human bocavirus in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis 54:964–967. [PubMed][CrossRef]
66. De Benedictis P, Schultz-Cherry S, Burnham A, Cattoli G. 2011. Astrovirus infections in humans and animals: molecular biology, genetic diversity, and interspecies transmissions. Infect Genet Evol 11:1529–1544. [PubMed][CrossRef]
67. Li L, Diab S, McGraw S, Barr B, Traslavina R, Higgins R, Talbot T, Blanchard P, Rimoldi G, Fahsbender E, Page B, Phan TG, Wang C, Deng X, Pesavento P, Delwart E. 2013. Divergent astrovirus associated with neurologic disease in cattle. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1385–1392. [PubMed][CrossRef]
68. Mena KD, Gerba CP. Waterborne adenovirus. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 198:133–167. [PubMed][CrossRef]
69. Bosshard F, Armand F, Hamelin R, Kohn T. 2013. Mechanisms of human adenovirus inactivation by sunlight and UVC light as examined by quantitative PCR and quantitative proteomics. Appl Environ Microbiol 79:1325–1332. [PubMed][CrossRef]
70. Fongaro G, Nascimento MA, Rigotto C, Ritterbusch G, da Silva AD, Esteves PA, Barardi CR. 2013. Evaluation and molecular characterization of human adenovirus in drinking water supplies: viral integrity and viability assays. Virol J 10:166. [PubMed][CrossRef]
71. Buckwalter SP, Teo R, Espy MJ, Sloan LM, Smith TF, Pritt BS. 2012. Real-time qualitative PCR for 57 human adenovirus types from multiple specimen sources. J Clin Microbiol 50:766–771. [PubMed][CrossRef]
72. Pereira HG Flewett TH, Candeias JA, Barth OM. 1988. A virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome in rat ( Oryzomys nigripes) intestines. J Gen Virol 69:2749–2754. [PubMed][CrossRef]
73. Mondal ASM, Majee S. 2014. Novel bisegmented virus (picobirnavirus) of animals, birds, and humans. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 4:154–158. [CrossRef]
74. Bányai K, Jakab F, Reuter G, Bene J, Uj M, Melegh B, Szücs G. 2003. Sequence heterogeneity among human picobirnaviruses detected in a gastroenteritis outbreak. Arch Virol 148:2281–2291. [PubMed][CrossRef]
75. Bányai K, Martella V, Bogdán A, Forgách P, Jakab F, Meleg E, Bíró H, Melegh B, Szucs G. 2008. Genogroup I picobirnaviruses in pigs: evidence for genetic diversity and relatedness to human strains. J Gen Virol 89:534–539. [PubMed][CrossRef]
76. Chandra R. 1997. Picobirnavirus, a novel group of undescribed viruses of mammals and birds: a minireview. Acta Virol 41:59–62. [PubMed]
77. Takahashi K, Hoshino H, Ohta Y, Yoshida N, Mishiro S. 1998. Very high prevalence of TT virus (TTV) infection in general population of Japan revealed by a new set of PCR primers. Hepatol Res 12:233–239. [CrossRef]
78. Prescott LE, Simmonds P. 1998. Global distribution of transfusion-transmitted virus. N Engl J Med 339:776–777. [PubMed][CrossRef]
79. Takayama S, Yamazaki S, Matsuo S, Sugii S. 1999. Multiple infection of TT virus (TTV) with different genotypes in Japanese hemophiliacs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 256:208–211. [PubMed][CrossRef]
80. Niel C, Diniz-Mendes L, Devalle S. 2005. Rolling-circle amplification of Torque teno virus (TTV) complete genomes from human and swine sera and identification of a novel swine TTV genogroup. J Gen Virol 86:1343–1347. [PubMed][CrossRef]
81. Nishiyama S, Dutia BM, Stewart JP, Meredith AL, Shaw DJ, Simmonds P, Sharp CP. 2014. Identification of novel anelloviruses with broad diversity in UK rodents. J Gen Virol 95:1544–1553. [PubMed][CrossRef]
82. Pinho-Nascimento CA, Leite JP, Niel C, Diniz-Mendes L. 2011. Torque teno virus in fecal samples of patients with gastroenteritis: prevalence, genogroups distribution, and viral load. J Med Virol 83:1107–1111. [PubMed][CrossRef]
83. Jiménez-Melsió A, Parés S, Segalés J, Kekarainen T. 2013. Detection of porcine anelloviruses in pork meat and human faeces. Virus Res 178:522–524. [PubMed][CrossRef]
84. Li L, Victoria JG, Wang C, Jones M, Fellers GM, Kunz TH, Delwart E. 2010. Bat guano virome: predominance of dietary viruses from insects and plants plus novel mammalian viruses. J Virol 84:6955–6965. [PubMed][CrossRef]
85. Li L, Shan T, Soji OB, Alam MM, Kunz TH, Zaidi SZ, Delwart E. 2011. Possible cross-species transmission of circoviruses and cycloviruses among farm animals. J Gen Virol 92:768–772. [PubMed][CrossRef]
86. Smits SL, Zijlstra EE, van Hellemond JJ, Schapendonk CM, Bodewes R, Schürch AC, Haagmans BL, Osterhaus AD. 2013. Novel cyclovirus in human cerebrospinal fluid, Malawi, 2010-2011. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1511–1513. [PubMed][CrossRef]
87. Taubenberger JK, Reid AH, Lourens RM, Wang R, Jin G, Fanning TG. 2005. Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes. Nature 437:889–893. [PubMed][CrossRef]
88. Lu S, Zheng Y, Li T, Hu Y, Liu X, Xi X, Chen Q, Wang Q, Cao Y, Wang Y, Zhou L, Lowrie D, Bao J. 2013. Clinical findings for early human cases of influenza A(H7N9) virus infection, Shanghai, China. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1142–1146. [PubMed][CrossRef]
89. Lopez-Martinez I, Balish A, Barrera-Badillo G, Jones J, Nuñez-García TE, Jang Y, Aparicio-Antonio R, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Belser JA, Ramirez-Gonzalez JE, Pedersen JC, Ortiz-Alcantara J, Gonzalez-Duran E, Shu B, Emery SL, Poh MK, Reyes-Teran G, Vazquez-Perez JA, Avila-Rios S, Uyeki T, Lindstrom S, Villanueva J, Tokars J, Ruiz-Matus C, Gonzalez-Roldan JF, Schmitt B, Klimov A, Cox N, Kuri-Morales P, Davis CT, Diaz-Quiñonez JA. 2013. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N3) virus in poultry workers, Mexico, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1531–1534. [PubMed][CrossRef]
90. Belser JA, Davis CT, Balish A, Edwards LE, Zeng H, Maines TR, Gustin KM, Martínez IL, Fasce R, Cox NJ, Katz JM, Tumpey TM. 2013. Pathogenesis, transmissibility, and ocular tropism of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N3) virus associated with human conjunctivitis. J Virol 87:5746–5754. [PubMed][CrossRef]
91. Pascua PN, Choi YK. 2014. Zoonotic infections with avian influenza A viruses and vaccine preparedness: a game of “mix and match”. Clin Exp Vaccine Res 3:140–148. [PubMed][CrossRef]
92. Shao D, Shi Z, Wei J, Ma Z. 2011. A brief review of foodborne zoonoses in China. Epidemiol Infect 139:1497–1504. [PubMed][CrossRef]
93. Shchelkunov SN. 2013. An increasing danger of zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections. PLoS Pathog 9:e1003756. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003756. [PubMed]
94. Jezek Z, Grab B, Szczeniowski M, Paluku KM, Mutombo M. 1988. Clinico-epidemiological features of monkeypox patients with an animal or human source of infection. Bull World Health Organ 66:459–464. [PubMed]
95. La Rosa G, Fratini M, Della Libera S, Iaconelli M, Muscillo M. 2013. Viral infections acquired indoors through airborne, droplet or contact transmission. Ann Ist Super Sanita 49:124–132. [PubMed]
96. Guan Y, Zheng BJ, He YQ, Liu XL, Zhuang ZX, Cheung CL, Luo SW, Li PH, Zhang LJ, Guan YJ, Butt KM, Wong KL, Chan KW, Lim W, Shortridge KF, Yuen KY, Peiris JS, Poon LL. 2003. Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in southern China. Science 302:276–278. [PubMed][CrossRef]
97. Memish ZA, Mishra N, Olival KJ, Fagbo SF, Kapoor V, Epstein JH, Alhakeem R, Durosinloun A, Al Asmari M, Islam A, Kapoor A, Briese T, Daszak P, Al Rabeeah AA, Lipkin WI. 2013. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in bats, Saudi Arabia. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1819–1823. [PubMed][CrossRef]
98. Raj VS, Osterhaus ADME, Fouchier RAM, Haagmans BL. 2014. MERS: emergence of a novel human coronavirus. Curr Opin Virol 5:58–62. [PubMed][CrossRef]
99. Halpin K, Young PL, Field HE, Mackenzie JS. 2000. Isolation of Hendra virus from pteropid bats: a natural reservoir of Hendra virus. J Gen Virol 81:1927–1932. [PubMed][CrossRef]
100. Yu XJ, Liang MF, Zhang SY, Liu Y, Li JD, Sun YL, Zhang L, Zhang Q-F, Popov VL, Li C, Qu J, Li Q, Zhang Y-P, Hai R, Wu W, Wang Q, Zhan F-X, Wang X-J, Kan B, Wang S-W, Wan K-L, Jing H-Q, Lu J-X, Yin W-W, Zhou H, Guan X-H, Liu J-F, Bi Z-Q, Liu G-H, Ren J, Wang H, Zhao Z, Song J-D, He J-R, Wan T, Zhang J-S, Fu X-P, Sun L-N, Dong X-P, Feng Z-J, Yang W-Z, Hong T, Zhang Y, Walker DH, Wang Y, Li D-X. 2011. Fever with thrombocytopenia associated with a novel bunyavirus in China. N Engl J Med 364:1523–1532. [PubMed][CrossRef]
101. McMullan LK, Folk SM, Kelly AJ, MacNeil A, Goldsmith CS, Metcalfe MG, Batten BC, Albariño CG, Zaki SR, Rollin PE, Nicholson WL, Nichol ST. 2012. A new phlebovirus associated with severe febrile illness in Missouri. N Engl J Med 367:834–841. [PubMed][CrossRef]
102. Xing Z, Schefers J, Schwabenlander M, Jiao Y, Liang M, Qi X, Li C, Goyal S, Cardona CJ, Wu X, Zhang Z, Li D, Collins J, Murtaugh MP. 2013. Novel bunyavirus in domestic and captive farmed animals, Minnesota, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1487–1489. [PubMed][CrossRef]
103. Savage HM, Godsey MS, Jr, Lambert A, Panella NA, Burkhalter KL, Harmon JR, Lash RR, Ashley DC, Nicholson WL. 2013. First detection of heartland virus ( Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) from field collected arthropods. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89:445–452. [PubMed][CrossRef]
104. Ergonul O. 2012. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: new outbreaks, new discoveries. Curr Opin Virol 2:215–220. [PubMed][CrossRef]
105. Chan JF-W, To KK-W, Tse H, Jin D-Y, Yuen K-Y. 2013. Interspecies transmission and emergence of novel viruses: lessons from bats and birds. Trends Microbiol 21:544–555. [PubMed][CrossRef]
106. Hayman DTS, Bowen RA, Cryan PM, McCracken GF, O’Shea TJ, Peel AJ, Gilbert A, Webb CT, Wood JLN. 2013. Ecology of zoonotic infectious diseases in bats: current knowledge and future directions. Zoonoses Public Health 60:2–21. [PubMed][CrossRef]
107. van der Poel WH, Lina PH, Kramps JA. 2006. Public health awareness of emerging zoonotic viruses of bats: a European perspective. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6:315–324. [PubMed][CrossRef]
108. Chen L, Liu B, Yang J, Jin Q. 2014. DBatVir: the database of bat-associated viruses. Database (Oxford) 2014:bau021. [PubMed][CrossRef]
109. Smith I, Wang LF. 2013. Bats and their virome: an important source of emerging viruses capable of infecting humans. Curr Opin Virol 3:84–91. [PubMed][CrossRef]
110. Wynne JW, Wang L-F. 2013. Bats and viruses: friend or foe? PLoS Pathog 9:e1003651. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003651. [PubMed][CrossRef]
111. O’Shea TJ, Cryan PM, Cunningham AA, Fooks AR, Hayman DTS, Luis AD, Peel AJ, Plowright RK, Wood JLN. 2014. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses. Emerg Infect Dis 20:741–745. [PubMed][CrossRef]
112. Luis AD, Hayman DT, O’Shea TJ, Cryan PM, Gilbert AT, Pulliam JR, Mills JN, Timonin ME, Willis CK, Cunningham AA, Fooks AR, Rupprecht CE, Wood JL, Webb CT. 2013. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special? Proc Biol Sci 280:20122753. [PubMed][CrossRef]
113. Baker ML, Schountz T, Wang L-F. 2013. Antiviral immune responses of bats: a review. Zoonoses Public Health 60:104–116. [PubMed][CrossRef]
114. Ithete NL, Stoffberg S, Corman VM, Cottontail VM, Richards LR, Schoeman MC, Drosten C, Drexler JF, Preiser W. 2013. Close relative of human Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in bat, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1697–1699. [PubMed][CrossRef]
115. Jenkins RKB, Racey PA. 2008. Bats as bushmeat in Madagascar. Madag Conserv Dev 3:22–390.
116. Wolfe ND, Daszak P, Kilpatrick AM, Burke DS. 2005. Bushmeat hunting, deforestation, and prediction of zoonoses emergence. Emerg Infect Dis 11:1822–1827. [PubMed][CrossRef]
117. Wolfe ND, Heneine W, Carr JK, Garcia AD, Shanmugam V, Tamoufe U, Torimiro JN, Prosser AT, Lebreton M, Mpoudi-Ngole E, McCutchan FE, Birx DL, Folks TM, Burke DS, Switzer WM. 2005. Emergence of unique primate T-lymphotropic viruses among central African bushmeat hunters. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:7994–7999. [PubMed][CrossRef]
118. Aghokeng AF, Ayouba A, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Loul S, Liegeois F, Delaporte E, Peeters M. 2010. Extensive survey on the prevalence and genetic diversity of SIVs in primate bushmeat provides insights into risks for potential new cross-species transmissions. Infect Genet Evol 10:386–396. [PubMed][CrossRef]
119. Peeters M, Courgnaud V, Abela B, Auzel P, Pourrut X, Bibollet-Ruche F, Loul S, Liegeois F, Butel C, Koulagna D, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Shaw GM, Hahn BH, Delaporte E. 2002. Risk to human health from a plethora of simian immunodeficiency viruses in primate bushmeat. Emerg Infect Dis 8:451–457. [PubMed][CrossRef]
120. Plantier J-C, Leoz M, Dickerson JE, De Oliveira F, Cordonnier F, Lemée V, Damond F, Robertson DL, Simon F. 2009. A new human immunodeficiency virus derived from gorillas. Nat Med 15:871–872. [PubMed][CrossRef]
121. Knust B, Rollin PE. 2013. Twenty-year summary of surveillance for human hantavirus infections, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1934–1937. [PubMed][CrossRef]
122. Phan TG, Kapusinszky B, Wang C, Rose RK, Lipton HL, Delwart EL. 2011. The fecal viral flora of wild rodents. PLoS Pathog 7:e1002218. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002218. [CrossRef]
123. Charrel RN, de Lamballerie X. 2010. Zoonotic aspects of arenavirus infections. Vet Microbiol 140:213–220. [PubMed][CrossRef]
124. Patterson M, Grant A, Paessler S. 2014. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever. Curr Opin Virol 5:82–90. [PubMed][CrossRef]
125. Shan T, Li L, Simmonds P, Wang C, Moeser A, Delwart E. 2011. The fecal virome of pigs on a high-density farm. J Virol 85:11697–11708. [PubMed][CrossRef]
126. Buehring GC, Philpott SM, Choi KY. 2003. Humans have antibodies reactive with bovine leukemia virus. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 19:1105–1113. [PubMed][CrossRef]
127. Buehring GC, Shen HM, Jensen HM, Choi KY, Sun D, Nuovo G. 2014. Bovine leukemia virus DNA in human breast tissue. Emerg Infect Dis 20:772–782. [PubMed][CrossRef]
128. zur Hausen H. 2012. Red meat consumption and cancer: reasons to suspect involvement of bovine infectious factors in colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 130:2475–2483. [PubMed][CrossRef]
129. Giovannucci E, Goldin B. 1997. The role of fat, fatty acids, and total energy intake in the etiology of human colon cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 66(Suppl) :1564S–1571S. [PubMed]
130. Yamada S, Suzuki Y, Suzuki T, Le MQ, Nidom CA, Sakai-Tagawa Y, Muramoto Y, Ito M, Kiso M, Horimoto T, Shinya K, Sawada T, Kiso M, Usui T, Murata T, Lin Y, Hay A, Haire LF, Stevens DJ, Russell RJ, Gamblin SJ, Skehel JJ, Kawaoka Y. 2006. Haemagglutinin mutations responsible for the binding of H5N1 influenza A viruses to human-type receptors. Nature 444:378–382. [PubMed][CrossRef]
131. Benavente J, Martínez-Costas J. 2007. Avian reovirus: structure and biology. Virus Res 123:105–119. [PubMed][CrossRef]
132. Fuller T, Bensch S, Müller I, Novembre J, Pérez-Tris J, Ricklefs RE, Smith TB, Waldenström J. 2012. The ecology of emerging infectious diseases in migratory birds: an assessment of the role of climate change and priorities for future research. EcoHealth 9:80–88. [PubMed][CrossRef]
133. Provost K, Dancho BA, Ozbay G, Anderson R, Richards G, Kingsley DH. 2011. Hemocytes are sites of persistence for enteric viruses within oysters. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:8360–8369. [PubMed][CrossRef]
134. Crossan C, Baker PJ, Craft J, Takeuchi Y, Dalton HR, Scobie L. 2012. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in shellfish, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis 18:2085–2087. [PubMed][CrossRef]
135. Iritani N, Kaida A, Abe N, Kubo H, Sekiguchi JI, Yamamoto SP, Goto K, Tanaka T, Noda M. 2014. Detection and genetic characterization of human enteric viruses in oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks between 2001 and 2012 in Osaka City, Japan. J Med Virol 86:2019–2025. [PubMed][CrossRef]
136. Balayan MS. 1992. Natural hosts of hepatitis A virus. Vaccine 10(Suppl 1) :S27–S31. [PubMed][CrossRef]
137. Summa M, von Bonsdorff C-H, Maunula L. 2012. Pet dogs: a transmission route for human noroviruses? J Clin Virol 53:244–247. [PubMed][CrossRef]
138. Day MJ, Breitschwerdt E, Cleaveland S, Karkare U, Khanna C, Kirpensteijn J, Kuiken T, Lappin MR, McQuiston J, Mumford E, Myers T, Palatnik-de-Souza CB, Rubin C, Takashima G, Thiermann A. 2012.Surveillance of zoonotic infectious disease transmitted by small companion animals. Emerg Infect Dis http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/12/12-0664_article.
139. Liu W, Wu S, Xiong Y, Li T, Wen Z, Yan M, Qin K, Liu Y, Wu J. 2014. Co-circulation and genomic recombination of coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 during a large outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in central China. PLoS One 9:e96051. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096051. [PubMed]
140. Perkins LE, Swayne DE. 2003. Varied pathogenicity of a Hong Kong-origin H5N1 avian influenza virus in four passerine species and budgerigars. Vet Pathol 40:14–24. [PubMed][CrossRef]
141. Kapoor A, Li L, Victoria J, Oderinde B, Mason C, Pandey P, Zaidi SZ, Delwart E. 2009. Multiple novel astrovirus species in human stool. J Gen Virol 90:2965–2972. [PubMed][CrossRef]
142. Ng TFF, Marine R, Wang C, Simmonds P, Kapusinszky B, Bodhidatta L, Oderinde BS, Wommack KE, Delwart E. 2012. High variety of known and new RNA and DNA viruses of diverse origins in untreated sewage. J Virol 86:12161–12175. [PubMed][CrossRef]
143. Xie G, Yu J, Duan Z. 2013. New strategy for virus discovery: viruses identified in human feces in the last decade. Sci China Life Sci 56:688–696. [PubMed][CrossRef]
144. Donaldson EF, Haskew AN, Gates JE, Huynh J, Moore CJ, Frieman MB. 2010. Metagenomic analysis of the viromes of three North American bat species: viral diversity among different bat species that share a common habitat. J Virol 84:13004–13018. [PubMed][CrossRef]
145. Mokili JL, Rohwer F, Dutilh BE. 2012. Metagenomics and future perspectives in virus discovery. Curr Opin Virol 2:63–77. [PubMed][CrossRef]
146. Lecuit M, Eloit M. 2013. The human virome: new tools and concepts. Trends Microbiol 21:510–515. [PubMed][CrossRef]
147. Metayer C, Johnson ES, Rice JC. 1998. Nested case-control study of tumors of the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems among workers in the meat industry. Am J Epidemiol 147:727–738. [PubMed][CrossRef]
148. McLean D, Pearce N. 2004. Cancer among meat industry workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 30:425–437. [PubMed][CrossRef]

Article metrics loading...



Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Transmission pathways by which foodborne viruses may enter human populations and evolutionary mechanisms by which viruses can become virulent are discussed in this chapter. A majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as domestic animals and livestock. Viruses that are known foodborne threats include hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, and astroviruses, among others. Viruses may potentially evolve and emerge as a result of modern agricultural practices which can concentrate livestock and bring them into contact with wild animals. Examples of viruses that have emerged in this manner are influenza, coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, and the Nipah virus. The role of bats, bush meat, rodents, pigs, cattle, and poultry as reservoirs from which infectious pathogenic viruses emerge are discussed.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



Image of FIGURE 1

Click to view


Examples of viruses and animal hosts linked to emergence of pathogenic human viruses. Letters indicate different viruses believed to have been transmitted to other animals or humans. Hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, influenza, poxvirus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Ebola, SARS, MERS, bovine leukemia virus, HIV-like and retroviruses, Hantaviruses, Arenaviruses. All photos taken from Wiki Commons.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0007-2014
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error