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Interactions of spp. with Zooplankton

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  • Authors: Martina Erken1, Carla Lutz2, Diane McDougald3
  • Editor: Michael Sadowsky4
    Affiliations: 1: Center for Marine Bio-Innovation, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia; 2: Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 3: ithree Institute, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia; and Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; and Center for Marine Bio-Innovation, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia; 4: University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN
  • Source: microbiolspec May 2015 vol. 3 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.VE-0003-2014
  • Received 14 October 2014 Accepted 25 February 2015 Published 29 May 2015
  • Diane McDougald, [email protected]
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  • Abstract:

    Members of the genus are known to interact with phyto- and zooplankton in aquatic environments. These interactions have been proven to protect the bacterium from various environmental stresses, serve as a nutrient source, facilitate exchange of DNA, and to serve as vectors of disease transmission. This review highlights the impact of -zooplankton interactions at the ecosystem scale and the importance of studies focusing on a wide range of -zooplankton interactions. The current knowledge on chitin utilization (i.e., chemotaxis, attachment, and degradation) and the role of these factors in attachment to nonchitinous zooplankton is also presented.

  • Citation: Erken M, Lutz C, McDougald D. 2015. Interactions of spp. with Zooplankton. Microbiol Spectrum 3(3):VE-0003-2014. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.VE-0003-2014.


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Members of the genus are known to interact with phyto- and zooplankton in aquatic environments. These interactions have been proven to protect the bacterium from various environmental stresses, serve as a nutrient source, facilitate exchange of DNA, and to serve as vectors of disease transmission. This review highlights the impact of -zooplankton interactions at the ecosystem scale and the importance of studies focusing on a wide range of -zooplankton interactions. The current knowledge on chitin utilization (i.e., chemotaxis, attachment, and degradation) and the role of these factors in attachment to nonchitinous zooplankton is also presented.

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Food web interactions of planktonic organisms. Bacteria take up dissolved and particular organic matter (DOM and POM, respectively). Heterotrophic protists ingest bacteria within the planktonic environment and are themselves preyed upon by larger predatory protists and metazoans. Carcasses and fecal matter of these organisms contribute to the DOM and POM bacteria utilize as nutrients. Black arrows indicate direct uptake for nutrients; gray arrows indicate contribution to the pool.

Source: microbiolspec May 2015 vol. 3 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.VE-0003-2014
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Common zooplankters with which spp. interact. spp. (especially ) colonize crustaceans, such as cladocerans (A), copepods (B), and ostracods (C). spp. have also been shown to interact with gelatinous and soft tissue zooplankters, and protozoa (D; i. ciliate, ii. flagellate, iii. amoeba), rotifers (E), chaetognaths (F), chironomids (G; i. adult, ii. egg masses), echinoderm pluteus larvae (H) , nauplius larvae (I), fish larvae (J i.), and fish eggs (J ii.) ( 12 , 19 , 33 , 45 , 64 , 66 , 76 , 131 ). Please note that the images are not to scale.

Source: microbiolspec May 2015 vol. 3 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.VE-0003-2014
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Utilization of chitin by spp. Chemotaxis towards chitin occurs when chitin oligosaccharides are detected by two independent receptors. Attachment to chitin occurs via GbpA, MshA pilus, or chitin-regulated pilus encoded by . Attachment to chitin leads to extracellular secretion of chitinases such as ChiA, which degrade chitin polymer to chitooligosaccharides. These enter the periplasm through specific porins such as ChiP and nonspecific porins. The chitooligosaccharides are hydrolyzed by various enzymes into GlcNAc and (GlcNAc) and are transported into the cytoplasm . The oligosaccharides are further phosphorylated into the final products acetate, NH, and fructose-6-P .

Source: microbiolspec May 2015 vol. 3 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.VE-0003-2014
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